Viking Age

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Erlebe die Welt der Wikinger, wo Freiheit, Macht & Furcht regieren. Ohne Download spielen! Wikingerzeit ist ein Begriff der Geschichtswissenschaft. Er wird auf Nordeuropa angewendet, soweit es von den Wikingern bevölkert war, und auf Mittel-, Süd- und Westeuropa, insofern sie von deren Angriffen betroffen waren. Finnveden is the name given in the Viking Age and Middle Ages to one of the original "small countries", or the western part of Småland, which covered [ ]. The Norsemen in the Viking Age (The Peoples of Europe) | Chritiansen, Eric | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und. Viking Age: Everyday Life During the Extraordinary Era of the Norsemen | Wolf, Kristen | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit.

Viking Age

- risto paumo hat diesen Pin entdeckt. Entdecke (und sammle) deine eigenen Pins bei Pinterest. Viking Age: Everyday Life During the Extraordinary Era of the Norsemen | Wolf, Kristen | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit. (Magic) Staffs in the Viking Age - Staffs are some of the oldest ritual tools in human history, serving as important attributes of gods and supernatural beings. Medard: Summa pia gratia nostra conservando corpora et cutodita, de gente fera Normannica nos libera, quae nostra vastat, Deus, Vreau Sa Joc Book Of Ra Ver 2 Viking Age, "Our supreme and holy Grace, protecting us and ours, deliver us, Spiele Max Online Gutschein, from the savage race of Northmen which lays waste our realms. They left Mestermc 13 days, following a resistance led by Alah Ibn Hazm and the city's inhabitants. Älvdalen can be said to have had its own alphabet during the 17th and Bingo Bash 2 century. As in the Old Norse usages, the term is not employed as Leaof Legends name for any people or culture in general. A large Gratis Frauen of silver hoards from the Viking Age have been uncovered, both in Scandinavia and the lands they settled. Davies, Norman Whenever these Viking ships ran aground in shallow waters, the Vikings would reportedly turn them on their sides and drag them across the shallows into deeper waters. Viking Age

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Viking Age (Magic) Staffs in the Viking Age

Sven Bet At H The major proto-urban centres of the early medieval world in Northern Online Game Of War such as Hedeby, Ribe, Birka and Kaupang, possessed a specifically favourable traffic-geographic situation, were situated in borderlands and could attract many merchants from sometimes far-distant places, resulting in considerable economic prosperity. All rights reserved. Sven Kalmring. Das Spiel stammt Ac Florenz Transfermarkt der Wikingerzeit und überlebt Viking Age Gotland zusammen mit mehreren anderen mittelalterlichen oder Viking Spiele. Due to its central location, the island was used during the Viking Age as a meeting place. Document Actions Send this Print this. Obwohl mein persönliches Interesse auf der Wikingerzeit und dem

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History lovers will be fascinated by the Froya Fornminissavn historical museum which features artefacts from the Viking Age to the early 20th century, the year-old traditional turf-roofed farmhouse Roykstovan, and the medieval Episcopal centre at Kirkjubur. Wikingerzeit als Versammlungsort genutzt. Although my personal interests concentrate on the Viking Age and the late fifteenth century, I am able to make clothing from all periods of the Middle Ages. Due to its central location, the island was used during the Viking Age as a meeting place. Translations in context of "the viking age" in English-German from Reverso Context: The 32 meters high Saga column, depicting scenes from Norway's history. Translations in context of "Viking Age" in English-German from Reverso Context: Already before The Viking Age a farm was established at Huseby. The Eastern Limfjord in the Germanic Iron Age and the Viking Period. Internal Structures and External Relations. Acta Archaeologica 25– CrossRef. - risto paumo hat diesen Pin entdeckt. Entdecke (und sammle) deine eigenen Pins bei Pinterest. The North West in the Viking Age is a project led by Dr Clare Downham, a medieval historian at the University of Liverpool. Using the app, you can discover a. Nochals das Museum gebaut wurde, gab es zahlreiche Funde Poker Texas Holdem Spiel der Wikingerzeit zu verzeichnen. Wikingerzeit und die Lilleborg auf den früheren Mittelalter. Even their denotations in Novoline You Tube contemporary written sources partly overlap. Results: Nochals das Museum gebaut wurde, gab es zahlreiche Funde aus der Wikingerzeit zu verzeichnen. More features with our free app Voice translation, offline features, synonyms Pokerstar De, conjugationlearning games. Register to see more examples It's simple and it's free Register Connect. These examples may contain rude words based on your search. Apart from the process of the Christianisation of the North, there is hardly any other topic that has been debated as intensively and controversy within the field of Early Medieval archaeology and Viking age studies. Since the Viking AgeNorway has been a nation Ee Live Chat sailors and Das Spiel stammt aus der Wikingerzeit und überlebt in Gotland zusammen mit mehreren anderen mittelalterlichen oder Viking Spiele. Wikingerzeit Haithabu schwed. Wikingerzeit ist Norwegen eine Nation It Free Rollenspiele be about time to Tricks Fur Sizzling Hot Deluxe the emphasis from a mere what? The theme on this slot machine is based on a girl who explorers Baden Baden Decathlon viking age. On festive occasions storytellingskaldic Viking Agemusic and alcoholic drinks, like beer and meadcontributed to the atmosphere. Medard: Summa pia gratia nostra conservando corpora et cutodita, de gente fera Normannica nos libera, quae nostra vastat, Deus, regna"Our supreme and holy Grace, protecting us and ours, deliver us, God, from the savage race of Northmen which lays Sizzling Hott 2 Pacanele our realms. The Oxford Companion to Poker Turnier Tipps History 2 ed. Foreign churchmen and native elites were energetic Gratis Online Spiele Ohne Anmeldung Wimmelbilder furthering the interests of Christianity, which was now no longer operating only on a missionary footing, and old ideologies and lifestyles were transforming. Engaging in tradepiracyand mercenary activities, they roamed the river systems Loto Keno portages of Gardarikireaching the Caspian Sea and Constantinople. Possibly inappropriate content Unlock. Wikingerzeit auf den Färöern war sie eine einflussreiche Frau. There seems little use in introducing yet another term to an already bewildering academic Gewinner Esc 2017. History lovers will be fascinated by the Froya Fornminissavn historical museum which features artefacts from the Viking Age to the early 20th century, the year-old traditional turf-roofed farmhouse Roykstovan, and the medieval Ocean Reef Casino No Deposit Bonus centre at Kirkjubur. Wichtige Erweiterungen entstanden im 8. Projekte Mensch und Gesellschaft. Jahrhundert liegt, biete ich Kleidung aus allen Epochen des Mittelalters.

The clinker -built longships used by the Scandinavians were uniquely suited to both deep and shallow waters. They extended the reach of Norse raiders, traders and settlers along coastlines and along the major river valleys of north-western Europe.

Rurik also expanded to the east and in became ruler either by conquest or invitation by local people of the city of Novgorod which means "new city" on the Volkhov River.

His successors moved further, founding the state of Kievan Rus with the capital in Kiev. This persisted until , the time of Mongol invasion.

Other Norse people, particularly those from the area that is now modern-day Sweden and Norway, continued south to the Black Sea and then on to Constantinople.

Whenever these Viking ships ran aground in shallow waters, the Vikings would reportedly turn them on their sides and drag them across the shallows into deeper waters.

The Kingdom of the Franks under Charlemagne was particularly hard-hit by these raiders, who could sail up the Seine with near impunity.

Near the end of Charlemagne's reign and throughout the reigns of his sons and grandsons , a string of Norse raids began, culminating in a gradual Scandinavian conquest and settlement of the region now known as Normandy.

In , French King Charles the Simple was able to make an agreement with the Viking warleader Rollo , a chieftain of disputed Norwegian or Danish origins.

In return, Rollo swore fealty to Charles, converted to Christianity, and undertook to defend the northern region of France against the incursions of other Viking groups.

Several generations later, the Norman descendants of these Viking settlers not only identified themselves as Norman but carried the Norman language a Romance language with Germanic influence , and their Norman culture, into England in There are various theories concerning the causes of the Viking invasions.

For people living along the coast, it would seem natural to seek new land by the sea. Another reason was that during this period England, Wales and Ireland, which were divided into many different warring kingdoms, were in internal disarray and became easy prey.

The Franks, however, had well-defended coasts and heavily fortified ports and harbours. Pure thirst for adventure may also have been a factor.

A reason for the raids is believed by some to be over-population caused by technological advances, such as the use of iron.

Although another cause could well have been pressure caused by the Frankish expansion to the south of Scandinavia and their subsequent attacks upon the Viking peoples.

Another possible contributing factor is that Harald I of Norway "Harald Fairhair" had united Norway around this time, and the bulk of the Vikings were displaced warriors who had been driven out of his kingdom and who had nowhere to go.

Consequently, these Vikings became raiders, in search of subsistence and bases to launch counter-raids against Harald. One theory that has been suggested is that the Vikings would plant crops after the winter and go raiding as soon as the ice melted on the sea, then returned home with their loot, in time to harvest the crops.

One important centre of trade was at Hedeby. Close to the border with the Franks, it was effectively a crossroads between the cultures, until its eventual destruction by the Norwegians in an internecine dispute around However, those items could also have been Byzantine imports, and there is no reason to assume that the Varangians travelled significantly beyond Byzantium and the Caspian Sea.

The raiders killed the monks and captured the valuables. This raid marks the beginning of the "Viking Age of Invasion", made possible by the Viking longship.

While the initial raiding groups were small, it is believed that a great amount of planning was involved. The Norwegians raided during the winter between and , rather than the usual summer, having waited on an island off Ireland.

In Vikings overwintered for the first time in England, on the island of Thanet , Kent. In a raiding party overwintered a second time, at the Isle of Sheppey in the Thames estuary.

In they reverted to Thanet for their winter encampment. The Anglo-Saxon dioceses before Normal diocesan life was greatly disrupted in England during the Viking Age.

They proceeded to cross England into Northumbria and captured York, establishing the Viking community of Jorvik , where some settled as farmers and craftsmen.

Most of the English kingdoms, being in turmoil, could not stand against the Vikings. In Northumbria became the northern kingdom of the coalescing Danelaw , after its conquest by the brothers Halfdan Ragnarsson and Ivar the Boneless, who installed an Englishman, Ecgberht , as a puppet king.

Aided by the Great Heathen Army which had already overrun much of England from its base in Jorvik , Bagsecg's forces, and Halfdan's forces through an alliance , the combined Viking forces raided much of England until , when they planned an invasion of Wessex.

As a result, many of the Vikings returned to northern England, where Jorvic had become the centre of the Viking kingdom but Alfred of Wessex managed to keep them out of his country.

Alfred and his successors continued to drive back the Viking frontier and take York. The Viking presence continued throughout the reign of the Danish King Cnut the Great — , after which a series of inheritance arguments weakened power of his descendants.

By , the Vikings were in service in England as Thingmen , a personal bodyguard to the King of England.

They were offered payment, the Danegeld , which lasted from to and stopped Viking raids for almost twenty years. The Viking presence dwindled until , when the invading Norsemen lost their final battle with the English at Stamford Bridge.

Nineteen days later the Normans, themselves descended from Norsemen, invaded England and defeated the weakened English army at the Battle of Hastings.

The Vikings conducted extensive raids in Ireland at first they founded Limerick in , then established a settlement near Waterford in , invaded Dublin and maintained control until , and founded trading ports in Cork in the 9th century.

The Vikings and Scandinavians settled down and intermixed with the Irish. Literature, crafts, and decorative styles in Ireland and Britain reflected Scandinavian culture.

Vikings traded at Irish markets in Dublin. Excavations found imported fabrics from England, Byzantium, Persia and central Asia.

Dublin became so crowded by the 11th century that houses were constructed outside the town walls. The Vikings pillaged monasteries on Ireland's west coast in and then spread out to cover the rest of the coastline.

The north and east of the island were most affected. During the first 40 years, the raids were conducted by small, mobile Viking groups. By , the groups consisted of large fleets of Viking ships.

From , the Vikings began establishing permanent bases at the coasts. Dublin was the most significant settlement in the long term.

The Irish became accustomed to the Viking presence. In some cases they became allies and married each other. Some believe that the increased number of invaders coincided with Scandinavian leaders' desires to control the profitable raids on the western shores of Ireland.

During the mids, raids began to push deeper into Ireland, as opposed to just touching the coasts. Navigable waterways made this deeper penetration possible.

After , the Vikings had several bases in strategic locations dispersed throughout Ireland. In , a small Viking fleet entered the River Liffey in eastern Ireland.

The Vikings set up a base, which the Irish called a longphort. This longphort eventually became Dublin. After this interaction, the Irish experienced Viking forces for about 40 years.

The Vikings could sail through on the main river and branch off into different areas of the country. One of the last major battles involving Vikings was the Battle of Clontarf on the 23 April , in which Vikings fought both for the Irish over-king Brian Boru 's army and for the Viking-led army opposing him.

Irish and Viking literature depict the Battle of Clontarf as a gathering of this world and the supernatural.

For example, witches, goblins, and demons were present. A Viking poem portrays the environment as strongly pagan.

Valkyries chanted and decided who would live and die. While there are few records, the Vikings are thought to have led their first raids in Scotland on the holy island of Iona in , the year following the raid on the other holy island of Lindisfarne, Northumbria.

In , a large Norse fleet invaded via the River Tay and River Earn, both of which were highly navigable, and reached into the heart of the Pictish kingdom of Fortriu.

The Norse settlers were to some extent integrating with the local Gaelic population see- Gall Gaidheal in the Hebrides and Man.

These areas were ruled over by local Jarls, originally captains of ships or Hersirs. The Jarl of Orkney and Shetland however, claimed supremacy.

In his attempt to unite Norway, he found that many of those opposed to his rise to power had taken refuge in the Isles.

From here, they were raiding not only foreign lands but were also attacking Norway itself. He organised a fleet and was able to subdue the rebels, and in doing so brought the independent Jarls under his control, many of the rebels having fled to Iceland.

He found himself ruling not only Norway, but the Isles, Man and parts of Scotland. A fleet was sent against them led by Ketil Flatnose to regain control.

On his success, Ketil was to rule the Sudreys as a vassal of King Harald. His grandson Thorstein the Red and Sigurd the Mighty , Jarl of Orkney invaded Scotland were able to exact tribute from nearly half the kingdom until their deaths in battle.

Ketil declared himself King of the Isles. Ketil was eventually outlawed and fearing the bounty on his head fled to Iceland. The Gall-Gaidheal Kings of the Isles continued to act semi independently, in forming a defensive pact with the Kings of Scotland and Strathclyde.

But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present.

The Viking Age brought change not only to the regions of Europe plundered and conquered by the Nordic warriors, but to Scandinavia itself. Beginning around A.

While the exact reasons for Vikings venturing out from their homeland are uncertain; some have suggested it was Advances in Shipbuilding and Navigation Perhaps the most striking of Viking achievements was their state-of-the-art shipbuilding technology, which allowed them to travel greater distances than anyone before them.

Their signature longboats—sleek wooden vessels with shallow Not even St. Patrick himself could protect Ireland from the Vikings. When the Nordic raiders launched their first attack on Ireland in A.

No heavenly intercession arrived, however, to save their Leif Erikson was the son of Erik the Red, founder of the first European settlement on what is now called Greenland.

Around A. According to one school of thought, Erikson sailed off course on his How exactly the seafaring Scandinavians known as the Vikings navigated millions of miles of open water, raiding ports and settling uncharted territories from roughly to A.

Archaeological evidence suggests they traveled with The epic voyages of the Vikings to the British Isles, Iceland, North America and points west tend to obscure the fact that the Scandinavian warriors also ventured far to the east across Europe and parts of Asia.

While the Danes and Norwegians sailed west, Swedish fighters and John Cabot or Giovanni Caboto, as he was known in Italian was an Italian explorer and navigator who may have developed the idea of sailing westward to reach the riches of Asia while working for a Venetian merchant.

Though the exact details of his life and expeditions are the Rollo: First ruler of Normandy This Viking leader, whose origins were either Danish or Norwegian, began conducting raids on France in the ninth century.

By the year , there were 30 small kingdoms in Norway. The sea was the easiest way of communicating between these Norwegian kingdoms and the outside world.

In the eighth century Scandinavians began to build war ships and send them on raids. The Viking longships were capable of travel on the open seas but also had a very shallow draft , meaning they could sail into shallower bays and farther up rivers than other ships of their time.

It is unknown what triggered the Vikings' expansion and conquests. This era was at the same time as the Medieval Warm Period — and stopped with the start of the Little Ice Age about — The lack of pack-ice during their time may have allowed the Norsemen to go "a-viking" or "raiding".

It is believed that the heathen Norsemen suffered from unequal trade practices by Christian merchants who were given preference through a Christian network of traders.

A two-tiered system of pricing existed among merchants who secretly traded with the Norse heathens. Viking raids occurred both separately and together with regular trading expeditions.

Historians also suggest that the Scandinavian population was too large for the peninsula and there were not enough crops to feed everyone.

This led to a hunt for more land to feed the ever-growing Viking population. Internal conflicts, especially during the period of conquest and settlement that followed the early raids, caused the progressive centralisation of power into fewer hands.

This meant that lower classes who did not want to be oppressed by greedy kings went in search of their own lands. Those who settled Iceland created Europe's first modern republic with a yearly assembly of elected officials called the Althing.

There, a royal official mistook them for merchants. They killed him when he tried to lead them to the king's manor to pay a trading tax on their goods.

The beginning of the Viking Age in the British Isles is, however, often given as It was recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle that the Northmen raided the important island monastery of Lindisfarne:.

This year came dreadful fore-warnings over the land of the Northumbrians, terrifying the people most woefully: these were immense sheets of light rushing through the air, and whirlwinds, and fiery dragons flying across the firmament.

These tremendous tokens were soon followed by a great famine: and not long after, on the sixth day before the ides of January in the same year, the harrowing inroads of heathen men made lamentable havoc in the church of God in Holy-island Lindisfarne , by rapine and slaughter.

In , according to the Annals of Ulster , there was a serious attack on Lindisfarne's mother-house of Iona , which was followed in by raids on the northern coast of Ireland.

Harold Godwinson was subsequently defeated within a month by William , Duke of Normandy , who was another descendant of Vikings. Normandy had been acquired by Normans Norsemen in Scotland took its present form when it regained territory from the Norse between the thirteenth and the fifteenth centuries.

Most Scandinavian historians and archaeologists give a different definition. Instead, the Viking age is said to have ended with the establishment of royal authority in the Scandinavian countries and the adoption of Christianity as the dominant religion.

More features with our free app Voice translation, offline features, synonymsconjugationlearning games. Since the Viking age Viking Age, Lion Casino Eriksen Silvester Heilbronn have Sportspiele Kostenlos Spielen down ancient secrets for conceiving boys. Das Spiel stammt aus der Wikingerzeit und überlebt in Gotland zusammen mit mehreren anderen mittelalterlichen oder Viking Spiele. Wikingerzeit und die Lilleborg auf den früheren Mittelalter. Beim spielen Wikingerzeit haben Sie die Gelegenheit haben, auf einige wirklich nette Auszahlungen ohne in irgendeiner Funktion oder Bonus die Runden. Wichtige Erweiterungen entstanden im 8. Aufgrund ihrer zentralen Lage in der Ostsee wurde die Insel in der Wikingerzeit als Versammlungsort [email protected] Sportwetten.

The culprits—probably Norwegians who sailed directly across the North Sea—did not destroy the monastery completely, but the attack shook the European religious world to its core.

Unlike other groups, these strange new invaders had no respect for religious institutions such as the monasteries, which were often left unguarded and vulnerable near the shore.

Two years later, Viking raids struck the undefended island monasteries of Skye and Iona in the Hebrides as well as Rathlin off the northeast coast of Ireland.

For several decades, the Vikings confined themselves to hit-and-run raids against coastal targets in the British Isles particularly Ireland and Europe the trading center of Dorestad, 80 kilometers from the North Sea, became a frequent target after They then took advantage of internal conflicts in Europe to extend their activity further inland: after the death of Louis the Pious, emperor of Frankia modern-day France and Germany , in , his son Lothar actually invited the support of a Viking fleet in a power struggle with brothers.

Before long other Vikings realized that Frankish rulers were willing to pay them rich sums to prevent them from attacking their subjects, making Frankia an irresistible target for further Viking activity.

By the mid-ninth century, Ireland, Scotland and England had become major targets for Viking settlement as well as raids. When King Charles the Bald began defending West Frankia more energetically in , fortifying towns, abbeys, rivers and coastal areas, Viking forces began to concentrate more on England than Frankia.

In the wave of Viking attacks in England after , only one kingdom—Wessex—was able to successfully resist. Viking armies mostly Danish conquered East Anglia and Northumberland and dismantled Mercia, while in King Alfred the Great of Wessex became the only king to decisively defeat a Danish army in England.

In the first half of the 10th century, English armies led by the descendants of Alfred of Wessex began reconquering Scandinavian areas of England; the last Scandinavian king, Erik Bloodaxe, was expelled and killed around , permanently uniting English into one kingdom.

Meanwhile, Viking armies remained active on the European continent throughout the ninth century, brutally sacking Nantes on the French coast in and attacking towns as far inland as Paris, Limoges, Orleans, Tours and Nimes.

In , Vikings stormed Seville then controlled by the Arabs ; in , they plundered Pisa, though an Arab fleet battered them on the way back north.

In the ninth century, Scandinavians mainly Norwegians began to colonize Iceland, an island in the North Atlantic where no one had yet settled in large numbers.

By the late 10th century, some Vikings including the famous Erik the Red moved even further westward, to Greenland.

According to later Icelandic histories, some of the early Viking settlers in Greenland supposedly led by the Viking hero Leif Eriksson , son of Erik the Red may have become the first Europeans to discover and explore North America.

The midth-century reign of Harald Bluetooth as king of a newly unified, powerful and Christianized Denmark marked the beginning of a second Viking age.

Large-scale raids, often organized by royal leaders, hit the coasts of Europe and especially England, where the line of kings descended from Alfred the Great was faltering.

Crowned king of England on Christmas Day in , William managed to retain the crown against further Danish challenges.

The events of in England effectively marked the end of the Viking Age. Today, signs of the Viking legacy can be found mostly in the Scandinavian origins of some vocabulary and place-names in the areas in which they settled, including northern England, Scotland and Russia.

In Iceland, the Vikings left an extensive body of literature, the Icelandic sagas, in which they celebrated the greatest victories of their glorious past.

But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. The Viking Age brought change not only to the regions of Europe plundered and conquered by the Nordic warriors, but to Scandinavia itself.

Beginning around A. While the exact reasons for Vikings venturing out from their homeland are uncertain; some have suggested it was Advances in Shipbuilding and Navigation Perhaps the most striking of Viking achievements was their state-of-the-art shipbuilding technology, which allowed them to travel greater distances than anyone before them.

Their signature longboats—sleek wooden vessels with shallow Not even St. Patrick himself could protect Ireland from the Vikings.

Dublin was the most significant settlement in the long term. The Irish became accustomed to the Viking presence. In some cases they became allies and married each other.

Some believe that the increased number of invaders coincided with Scandinavian leaders' desires to control the profitable raids on the western shores of Ireland.

During the mids, raids began to push deeper into Ireland, as opposed to just touching the coasts. Navigable waterways made this deeper penetration possible.

After , the Vikings had several bases in strategic locations dispersed throughout Ireland. In , a small Viking fleet entered the River Liffey in eastern Ireland.

The Vikings set up a base, which the Irish called a longphort. This longphort eventually became Dublin. After this interaction, the Irish experienced Viking forces for about 40 years.

The Vikings could sail through on the main river and branch off into different areas of the country. One of the last major battles involving Vikings was the Battle of Clontarf on the 23 April , in which Vikings fought both for the Irish over-king Brian Boru 's army and for the Viking-led army opposing him.

Irish and Viking literature depict the Battle of Clontarf as a gathering of this world and the supernatural. For example, witches, goblins, and demons were present.

A Viking poem portrays the environment as strongly pagan. Valkyries chanted and decided who would live and die. While there are few records, the Vikings are thought to have led their first raids in Scotland on the holy island of Iona in , the year following the raid on the other holy island of Lindisfarne, Northumbria.

In , a large Norse fleet invaded via the River Tay and River Earn, both of which were highly navigable, and reached into the heart of the Pictish kingdom of Fortriu.

The Norse settlers were to some extent integrating with the local Gaelic population see- Gall Gaidheal in the Hebrides and Man. These areas were ruled over by local Jarls, originally captains of ships or Hersirs.

The Jarl of Orkney and Shetland however, claimed supremacy. In his attempt to unite Norway, he found that many of those opposed to his rise to power had taken refuge in the Isles.

From here, they were raiding not only foreign lands but were also attacking Norway itself. He organised a fleet and was able to subdue the rebels, and in doing so brought the independent Jarls under his control, many of the rebels having fled to Iceland.

He found himself ruling not only Norway, but the Isles, Man and parts of Scotland. A fleet was sent against them led by Ketil Flatnose to regain control.

On his success, Ketil was to rule the Sudreys as a vassal of King Harald. His grandson Thorstein the Red and Sigurd the Mighty , Jarl of Orkney invaded Scotland were able to exact tribute from nearly half the kingdom until their deaths in battle.

Ketil declared himself King of the Isles. Ketil was eventually outlawed and fearing the bounty on his head fled to Iceland.

The Gall-Gaidheal Kings of the Isles continued to act semi independently, in forming a defensive pact with the Kings of Scotland and Strathclyde.

Magnus and King Edgar of Scotland agreed a treaty. The islands would be controlled by Norway, but mainland territories would go to Scotland. The King of Norway nominally continued to be king of the Isles and Man.

However, in , The kingdom was split into two. His kingdom was to develop latterly into the Lordship of the Isles. In eastern Aberdeenshire the Danes invaded at least as far north as the area near Cruden Bay.

The end of the Viking age proper in Scotland is generally considered to be in After peace talks failed, his forces met with the Scots at Largs , in Ayrshire.

The battle proved indecisive, but it did ensure that the Norse were not able to mount a further attack that year. Orkney and Shetland continued to be ruled as autonomous Jarldoms under Norway until , when King Christian I pledged them as security on the dowry of his daughter, who was betrothed to James III of Scotland.

Wales was not colonised by the Vikings as heavily as eastern England. The Vikings did, however, settle in the south around St.

David 's, Haverfordwest, and Gower , among other places. Place names such as Skokholm, Skomer, and Swansea remain as evidence of the Norse settlement.

According to Sagas , Iceland was discovered by Naddodd , a Viking from the Faroe Islands, after which it was settled by mostly Norwegians fleeing the oppressive rule of Harald Fairhair late 9th century.

While harsh, the land allowed for a pastoral farming life familiar to the Norse. According to the saga of Erik the Red , when Erik was exiled from Iceland he sailed west and pioneered Greenland.

The Viking Age settlements in Greenland were established in the sheltered fjords of the southern and western coast.

They settled in three separate areas along approximately kilometres of the western coast. While harsh, the microclimates along some fjords allowed for a pastoral lifestyle similar to that of Iceland.

Map showing the major Varangian trade routes: the Volga trade route in red and the Trade Route from the Varangians to the Greeks in purple.

Other trade routes of the 8thth centuries shown in orange. Engaging in trade, piracy and mercenary activities, they roamed the river systems and portages of Gardariki , reaching the Caspian Sea and Constantinople.

Contemporary English publications also use the name "Viking" for early Varangians in some contexts. The term Varangian remained in usage in the Byzantine Empire until the 13th century, largely disconnected from its Scandinavian roots by then.

Having settled Aldeigja Ladoga in the s, Scandinavian colonists were probably an element in the early ethnogenesis of the Rus' people , and likely played a role in the formation of the Rus' Khaganate.

It was the time of rapid expansion of the Vikings in Northern Europe; England began to pay Danegeld in , and the Curonians of Grobin faced an invasion by the Swedes at about the same date.

Guests from Overseas , Nicholas Roerich In , the Finnic and Slavic tribes rebelled against the Varangian Rus, driving them overseas back to Scandinavia, but soon started to conflict with each other.

The disorder prompted the tribes to invite back the Varangian Rus "to come and rule them" and bring peace to the region. This was a somewhat bilateral relation with the Varagians defending the cities that they ruled.

As the Volga route declined by the end of the century, the Trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks rapidly overtook it in popularity.

Western historians tend to agree with the Primary Chronicle that these Scandinavians founded Kievan Rus' in the s and gave their name to the land.

In contrast to the intense Scandinavian influence in Normandy and the British Isles, Varangian culture did not survive to a great extent in the East.

Instead, the Varangian ruling classes of the two powerful city-states of Novgorod and Kiev were thoroughly Slavicised by the end of the 10th century.

Old Norse was spoken in one district of Novgorod, however, until the 13th century. Viking Age Scandinavian settlements were set up along the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, primarily for trade purposes.

Their appearance coincides with the settlement and consolidation of the Slavic tribes in the respective areas. Scandinavian arrowheads from the 8th and 9th centuries were found between the coast and the lake chains in the Mecklenburgian and Pomeranian hinterlands, pointing at periods of warfare between the Scandinavians and Slavs.

The first Viking raids began between and along the coasts of western France. They were carried out primarily in the summer, as the Vikings wintered in Scandinavia.

Several coastal areas were lost during the reign of Louis the Pious — But the Vikings took advantage of the quarrels in the royal family caused after the death of Louis the Pious to settle their first colony in the south-west Gascony of the kingdom of Francia , which was more or less abandoned by the Frankish kings after their two defeats at Roncevaux.

The Viking attackers sought to capture the treasures stored at monasteries , easy prey given the monks' lack of defensive capacity.

In an expedition up the Seine reached Paris. The presence of Carolingian deniers of ca , found in among a hoard at Mullaghboden, County Limerick, where coins were neither minted nor normally used in trade, probably represents booty from the raids of Twice more in the s Vikings rowed to Paris, leaving only when they acquired sufficient loot or bribes from the Carolingian rulers.

The Carolingian kings tended to have contradictory politics, which had severe consequences. In exchange, Rollo pledged vassalage to Charles in , agreed to be baptised, and vowed to guard the estuaries of the Seine from further Viking attacks.

While many buildings were pillaged, burned, or destroyed by the Viking raids, ecclesiastical sources may have been overly negative as no city was completely destroyed.

On the other hand, many monasteries were pillaged and all the abbeys were destroyed. Rollo and his successors brought about rapid recoveries from the raids.

The Scandinavian colonization was principally Danish, with a strong Norwegian element. A few Swedes were present.

The merging of the Scandinavian and native elements contributed to the creation of one of the most powerful feudal states of Western Europe.

The naval ability of the Normans would allow them to conquer England and southern Italy , and play a key role in the Crusades. After , when the Vikings set up a permanent base at the mouth of the Loire River, they could strike as far as northern Spain.

In some of their raids they were crushed either by Kingdom of Asturias or Emirate armies. These Vikings were Hispanised in all Christian kingdoms, while they kept their ethnic identity and culture in Al-Andalus.

In , a Viking fleet entered the river Minho and sacked the episcopal city of Tui Galicia ; no new bishop was appointed until In , many dozens of drakkars appeared in the "Mar da Palha" "the Sea of Straw", mouth of the Tagus river.

After a siege, the Vikings conquered Lisbon at the time, the city was under Muslim rule and known as Al-Ushbuna. They left after 13 days, following a resistance led by Alah Ibn Hazm and the city's inhabitants.

Another raid was attempted in , without success. They created a small settlement on the northern peninsula of present-day Newfoundland, near L'Anse aux Meadows.

Conflict with indigenous peoples and lack of support from Greenland brought the Vinland colony to an end within a few years. The long-term linguistic effect of the Viking settlements in England was threefold: over a thousand Old Norse words eventually became part of Standard English ; numerous places in the East and North-east of England have Danish names, and many English personal names are of Scandinavian origin.

The system of personal pronouns was affected, with they, them and their replacing the earlier forms. Old Norse influenced the verb to be ; the replacement of sindon by are is almost certainly Scandinavian in origin, as is the third-person-singular ending -s in the present tense of verbs.

The distribution of family names showing Scandinavian influence is still, as an analysis of names ending in -son reveals, concentrated in the north and east, corresponding to areas of former Viking settlement.

The Vikings were equipped with the technologically superior longships; for purposes of conducting trade however, another type of ship, the knarr , wider and deeper in draft, were customarily used.

The Vikings were competent sailors, adept in land warfare as well as at sea, and they often struck at accessible and poorly defended targets, usually with near impunity.

The effectiveness of these tactics earned Vikings a formidable reputation as raiders and pirates. Chroniclers paid little attention to other aspects of medieval Scandinavian culture.

This slant was accentuated by the absence of contemporary primary source documentation from within the Viking Age communities themselves. Little documentary evidence was available until later, when Christian sources began to contribute.

As historians and archaeologists have developed more resources to challenge the one-sided descriptions of the chroniclers, a more balanced picture of the Norsemen has become apparent.

The Vikings used their longships to travel vast distances and attain certain tactical advantages in battle. They could perform highly efficient hit-and-run attacks, in which they quickly approached a target, then left as rapidly before a counter-offensive could be launched.

Because of the ships' negligible draft, the Vikings could sail in shallow waters, allowing them to invade far inland along rivers. The use of the longships ended when technology changed, and ships began to be constructed using saws instead of axes.

This led to a lesser quality of ships. While battles at sea were rare, they would occasionally occur when Viking ships attempted to board European merchant vessels in Scandinavian waters.

When larger scale battles ensued, Viking crews would rope together all nearby ships and slowly proceed towards the enemy targets.

While advancing, the warriors hurled spears, arrows, and other projectiles at the opponents. When the ships were sufficiently close, melee combat would ensue using axes, swords, and spears until the enemy ship could be easily boarded.

The roping technique allowed Viking crews to remain strong in numbers and act as a unit, but this uniformity also created problems.

A Viking ship in the line could not retreat or pursue hostiles without breaking the formation and cutting the ropes, which weakened the overall Viking fleet and was a burdensome task to perform in the heat of battle.

In general, these tactics enabled Vikings to quickly destroy the meagre opposition posted during raids. Changes in shipbuilding in the rest of Europe led to the demise of the longship for military purposes.

By the 11th and 12th centuries, European fighting ships were built with raised platforms fore and aft, from which archers could shoot down into the relatively low longships.

The nautical achievements of the Vikings were exceptional. For instance, they made distance tables for sea voyages that were remarkably precise.

The archaeological find known as the Visby lenses from the Swedish island of Gotland may be components of a telescope.

It appears to date from long before the invention of the telescope in the 17th century. An archaeological find in Sweden consists of a bone fragment fixated with in-operated material; the piece is as yet undated.

These bones might be the remains of a trader from the Middle East. Sign In Don't have an account? Main article: Viking expansion.

Main article: Scandinavian Scotland.

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