Diamond And Fire

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You superior not mass with that will guy alone. In his work Naturalis Historia , the Roman writer Pliny the Elder noted diamond's ornamental uses, as well as its usefulness to engravers because of its hardness.

It is however highly doubtful that Pliny meant diamonds, and it is assumed that in fact several minerals such as corundum , spinel , or even a mixture with magnetite were all referred to by the word "adamas".

Diamonds eventually spread throughout the world, even though India had remained the only major source of the gemstone until diamonds were discovered in Brazil in The modern era of diamond mining began in the s in Kimberley , South Africa with the opening of the first large-scale diamond mine.

In , an even larger This sparked off the famous "New Rush" and within a month, claims were cut into the hillock which were worked frenetically by two to three thousand men.

As the land was lowered so the hillock became a mine—in time, the world-renowned Kimberley Mine. In , the two companies merged to form De Beers Consolidated Mines , which once had a monopoly over the world's diamond market.

The diamond cutters of Antwerp are world renowned for their skill. More than 12, expert cutters and polishers are at work in the Diamond District , at workshops, serving 1, firms and 3, brokers and merchants.

In the 21st century, the technology to produce perfect diamonds synthetically was developed. Diamonds produced by the latest technologies are visually identical to mined, naturally occurring diamonds.

It is too early to assess the effect of future wide availability of gem-quality synthetic diamonds on the diamond market, although the traditional diamond industry has taken steps to try to create a distinction between diamonds dug from the ground and diamonds made in a factory, in part by downplaying the fact that diamonds from both sources are actually visually identical.

The most familiar usage of diamonds today is as gemstones used for adornment —a usage which dates back into antiquity.

The dispersion of white light into spectral colors is the primary gemological characteristic of gem diamonds.

In the twentieth century, gemologists have developed methods of grading diamonds and other gemstones based on the characteristics most important to their value as a gem.

Four characteristics known informally as the "four Cs" are now commonly used as the basic descriptors of diamonds: carat, cut, color, and clarity.

This system was developed by Gemological Institute of America in as internationally recognized standard to evaluate diamonds characteristics.

Most gem diamonds are traded on the wholesale market based on single values for each of the four Cs; for example knowing that a diamond is rated as 1.

More detailed information from within each characteristic is used to determine actual market value for individual stones. Consumers who purchase individual diamonds are often advised to use the four Cs to pick the diamond that is "right" for them.

Other characteristics also influence the value and appearance of a gem diamond. These include physical characteristics such as the presence of fluorescence as well as the diamond's source and which gemological institute evaluated the diamond.

Cleanliness also dramatically affects a diamond's beauty. There are two major non-profit gemological associations which grade and provide reports, informally referred to by the term certificate or cert , which is a misnomer for many grading reports on diamonds; while carat weight and cut angles are mathematically defined, the clarity and color are judged by the trained human eye and are therefore open to slight variance in interpretation.

These associations are listed below. Within the last two decades, a number of for-profit gemological grading laboratories have also been established, many of them also based in Antwerp or New York.

These entities serve to provide similar services as the non-profit associations above, but in a less expensive and more timely fashion.

They produce certificates that are similar to those of the GIA. The carat weight measures the mass of a diamond. One carat is defined as milligrams about 0.

The point unit—equal to one one-hundredth of a carat 0. All else being equal, the price per carat increases with carat weight, since larger diamonds are both rarer and more desirable for use as gemstones.

The price per carat does not increase linearly with increasing size. Instead, there are sharp jumps around milestone carat weights, as demand is much higher for diamonds weighing just more than a milestone than for those weighing just less.

As an example, a 0. Jewelers often trade diamonds at negotiated discounts off the Rapaport price e. In the wholesale trade of gem diamonds, carat is often used in denominating lots of diamonds for sale.

Because of this, diamond prices particularly among wholesalers and other industry professionals are often quoted per carat, rather than per stone. Total carat weight t.

Diamond solitaire earrings, for example, are usually quoted in t. Clarity is a measure of internal defects of a diamond called inclusions. Inclusions may be crystals of a foreign material or another diamond crystal, or structural imperfections such as tiny cracks that can appear whitish or cloudy.

The number, size, color, relative location, orientation, and visibility of inclusions can all affect the relative clarity of a diamond.

Diamonds become increasingly rare when considering higher clarity gradings. Those that do not have a visible inclusion are known as "eye-clean" and are preferred by most buyers, although visible inclusions can sometimes be hidden under the setting in a piece of jewelry.

Most inclusions present in gem-quality diamonds do not affect the diamonds' performance or structural integrity.

When set in jewelry, it may also be possible to hide certain inclusion behind mounting hardware such as prongs in a way that renders the defect invisible.

However, large clouds can affect a diamond's ability to transmit and scatter light. Large cracks close to or breaking the surface may increase the likelihood of a fracture.

The finest quality as per color grading is totally colorless, which is graded as D color diamond across the globe, meaning it is absolutely free from any color.

However, when studded in jewellery these very light colored diamonds do not show any color or it is not possible to make out color shades. These are graded as E color or F color diamonds.

Diamonds which show very little traces of color are graded as G or H color diamonds. Slightly colored diamonds are graded as I or J or K color.

A diamond can be found in any color in addition to colorless. Some of the colored diamonds, such as pink, are very rare. A chemically pure and structurally perfect diamond is perfectly transparent with no hue , or color.

However, in reality most gem-sized natural diamonds are imperfect. Depending on the hue and intensity of a diamond's coloration, a diamond's color can either detract from or enhance its value.

For example, most white diamonds are discounted in price as a more yellow hue is detectable, while intense pink or blue diamonds such as the Hope Diamond can be dramatically more valuable.

The Aurora Diamond Collection displays a spectacular array of naturally colored diamonds , which occur in every color of the rainbow.

Most diamonds used as gemstones are basically transparent with little tint, or white diamonds. The most common impurity, nitrogen , replaces a small proportion of carbon atoms in a diamond's structure and causes a yellowish to brownish tint.

The GIA has developed a rating system for color in white diamonds, from D to Z with D being "colorless" and Z having a bright yellow coloration , which has been widely adopted in the industry and is universally recognized, superseding several older systems.

The GIA system uses a benchmark set of natural diamonds of known color grade, along with standardized and carefully controlled lighting conditions.

Diamonds with higher color grades are rarer, in higher demand, and therefore more expensive, than lower color grades.

Oddly enough, diamonds graded Z are also rare, and the bright yellow color is also highly valued. N—Y usually appear light yellow or brown.

In contrast to yellow or brown hues, diamonds of other colors are more rare and valuable. While even a pale pink or blue hue may increase the value of a diamond, more intense coloration is usually considered more desirable and commands the highest prices.

A variety of impurities and structural imperfections cause different colors in diamonds, including yellow, pink, blue, red, green, brown, and other hues.

Black diamond's natural form is known as Carbonado , the toughest form of the diamond which is porous and difficult to cut. Black diamonds are natural, man-made, treated black diamonds.

Some black diamonds are expensive than other types of black diamonds because of the quality, durability, production cost, and few other factors.

Intense yellow coloration is considered one of the fancy colors, and is separate from the color grades of white diamonds.

Gemologists have developed rating systems for fancy colored diamonds, but they are not in common use because of the relative rarity of such diamonds.

Diamond cutting is the art and science of creating a gem-quality diamond out of mined rough. The cut of a diamond describes the manner in which a diamond has been shaped and polished from its beginning form as a rough stone to its final gem proportions.

The cut of a diamond describes the quality of workmanship and the angles to which a diamond is cut. Often diamond cut is confused with "shape".

There are mathematical guidelines for the angles and length ratios at which the diamond is supposed to be cut in order to reflect the maximum amount of light.

Round brilliant diamonds, the most common, are guided by these specific guidelines, though fancy cut stones are not able to be as accurately guided by mathematical specifics.

The techniques for cutting diamonds have been developed over hundreds of years, with perhaps the greatest achievements made in by mathematician and gem enthusiast Marcel Tolkowsky.

He developed the round brilliant cut by calculating the ideal shape to return and scatter light when a diamond is viewed from above.

The modern round brilliant has 57 facets polished faces , counting 33 on the crown the top half , and 24 on the pavilion the lower half.

The girdle is the thin middle part. The function of the crown is to refract light into various colors and the pavilion's function to reflect light back through the top of the diamond.

The culet is the tiny point or facet at the bottom of the diamond. This should be a negligible diameter, otherwise light leaks out of the bottom.

Tolkowsky's calculations included neither a culet nor a girdle. However, a girdle is required in reality in order to prevent the diamond from easily chipping in the setting.

The thick part of the girdle is normally about 1. The further the diamond's characteristics are from the Tolkowsky's ideal, the less light will be reflected.

However, there is a small range in which the diamond can be considered "ideal". Tolkowsky's calculations can be repeated for a narrow range of pavilion angles.

Such calculations show a slightly larger table percentage, and a trade-off between pavilion angle and crown angle. Today, because of the relative importance of carat weight among buyers, many diamonds are often intentionally cut poorly to increase carat weight.

There is a financial premium for a diamond that weighs the desirable 1. Neither of these changes makes the diamond appear any larger, and both greatly reduce the sparkle of the diamond.

A poorly cut 1. The depth percentage is the overall quickest indication of the quality of the cut of a round brilliant.

Who do you take me for, anyway? A second-class villain or something? I am NOT the one who read and rated this book.

Nope nope nope. Explains a lot, doesn't it? Ha again. We have a title!!!!!!!!!!! It's Diamond Fire! And we should have a cover posthaste!

Wheeeeeee and stuff!!!!! You are quite welcome. Not sure though. I think I just died and went to shrimpy heaven. Either that or my daily puny human sacrifices to the Most Glorious Authorlords finally paid off nightly prayers to Saint Shrimp have finally been answered.

Don't tell anyone, but I think two virtual unknowns just invited us to their tactile wedding in November: Ooops , sorry, wrong invite. Now that's more like it.

View all comments. Nevada inexplicably gets incredibly fussy and controlling about the wedding details, firing two wedding planners, and her beleaguered 18 and 16 year old sisters Catalina and Arabella decide that the only feasible option is to handle the 3.

Nevada inexplicably gets incredibly fussy and controlling about the wedding details, firing two wedding planners, and her beleaguered 18 and 16 year old sisters Catalina and Arabella decide that the only feasible option is to handle the wedding planning themselves.

The Baylor clan is neither wealthy nor politically powerful, but does have several family members with powerful magic.

The first three novels in this series, beginning with Burn for Me, featured Nevada Baylor as the main character. The case of the stolen Sealight Crown forces Catalina to begin breaking out of her shell and to experiment with her magical talent, finding interesting new ways to use it in her investigations.

Trust me on this. There are a lot of underhanded dealings and resentments brewing in Mrs. The storytelling probably also was hampered somewhat by the novella length of Diamond Fire , especially given the large number of new and unfamiliar characters in its pages.

Wedding planning and jewelry theft investigation are a rather unlikely and hefty responsibility to dump on the eighteen-year-old sister of the bride, but Catalina rises to the occasion, and makes a new and useful friend in Mrs.

Rogan in the process. Thanks so much!! View all 20 comments. Nov 07, Robin Bridge Four rated it really liked it Shelves: reads , buddy-read , super-sidekicks , chick-i-want-to-hang-out-with , kick-ass-heroines , chocolate-pms-day-reads , witches-warlocks-and-magic , stars , bb-b , uf-pnr.

Re-read Time!!! Just as good the second time. Original Review Diamond Fire is a transition story, it moves us away from Nevada as the main character to Catalina being the PoV for the series.

Nevada ha Re-read Time!!! Nevada has tossed the baton beautifully to her younger sister to take over from here. But, Leon steals the show and is fantastic in his new role in the family.

I really like this upgraded version of him now that he knows what his magic is and has become more comfortable in his skin. Leon let out a long- suffering sigh.

These places can get pretty rough. So dark. I figured out where the Crown went pretty early but that was only one part of the story.

The other was all the family drama. There were a few gems in the family but most of them were just awful.

But it has to be hard to know that you can never relax with a person you like or your power might take hold of them and give them false feelings.

But when I saw Alessandro, I wanted to snap my wings open as far as they could go and dazzle him with everything I had, so he would be mine forever.

I liked him so much, I had to let him go. It would be a struggle. I really enjoyed exploring the magic though and the potential it could hold. I love how they fight as sisters and are there for each other in every way.

They are so close and protective. Well, yes and no. To me they seemed a little different and a loof or uncaring in some instances but remember this is from a totally different PoV and so perception is everything.

I thought that it was the perfect wedding present to Nevada and Rogan. I need books with the slow burn and intensity of their love story or another love interest inbetween or something.

View all 9 comments. Nov 12, Jilly rated it really liked it Shelves: urban-fantasy , novella. I know it's a novella, but still, I needed more!

I love these characters so much and can't wait for what comes next. This book was like eating one potato chip. Just that perfect chip, fresh from the bag, with the perfect amount of salt.

Then, no more. Just one. The rest will sit there looking delicious and mocking you. So, it wasn't enough. But still, what we got was fun.

Nevada and Rogan are getting married and Catalina is the wedding planner. She is under a lot of pressure, and then Rogan's ext I know it's a novella, but still, I needed more!

She is under a lot of pressure, and then Rogan's extended crazy family shows up and makes everything a thousand times harder.

Family - you can't have nice things with them, and you can't kill them. Except this grandma. I wonder if she'd do a boudoir photo shoot for me to give to my husband.

Not of me. Of her. I could use the extra sleep. Of course someone steals a valuable item at the family gathering. They are all suspects and Catalina has to figure it out while trying not to offend everyone.

The baby did it. I knew it! This was fun and gives us a little taste of what Catalina's series will be like. I can't wait. So, now I guess I'll just wait View all 10 comments.

Instagram Twitter Facebook Amazon Pinterest I've been sitting on this one for a while, saving it for a rainy day because I knew I'd love it and wanted to savor the prospect of reading it.

With all the quarantining going on, now seemed like an excellent time to revisit the world of Hidden Legacy, Primes, and, of course, Mad Rogan. Nevada is now getting married to Rogan and t Instagram Twitter Facebook Amazon Pinterest I've been sitting on this one for a while, saving it for a rainy day because I knew I'd love it and wanted to savor the prospect of reading it.

Nevada is now getting married to Rogan and the Baylors have their own prestigious House with multiple primes although the records of the minors are sealed.

Catalina and Arabella are tasked by Rogan to make sure that the wedding goes smoothly Catalina ends up acting as investigator on her own, trying to figure out who might want to stop Nevada and Rogan's wedding, whether they're willing to kill to do so, and if it's an inside job.

She really comes into her own in this book, developing a confidence in herself, as well as her controversial and powerful abilities.

I loved Catalina and I'm sure I'm going to love her even more once I read her "official" novel, but this book had some problems. Part of me wants to give it 5 STARS out of my sheer love for the original trilogy but this does have some of the typical novella problems.

The first half is very rushed and has a definitive "fanfic" vibe. The second half is much better, pacing-wise, and I liked Catalina a lot more as a narrator.

Which is one of the problems I had with this book. Nevada was made into a total Bridezilla for the lolz.

And while I get that nerves and perfectionism make everyone a little crazy, it did almost feel like Nevada was demonized to make Catalina seem more likable and even-tempered by comparison.

Which was totally unnecessary! One of the things I loved about the original story was Nevada's loving dynamic with her family.

So making Nevada go le cray cray felt not only out of character but also kind of mean. Ilona Andrews, I expect better from you!

As a fan of The Hidden Legacy trilogy, I'm giving this a four star rating because it was really, really fun and the mystery element was much less silly than I was afraid it was going to be.

However, this is not a standalone and can't really be read and appreciated without the original trilogy under your belt, and it does have some pretty major problems that I just can't overlook, no matter how much I love IA.

View all 26 comments. Apr 22, Anne rated it really liked it Shelves: magic-stuff , read-in , short-stories , urban-fantasy , libby-app.

Pretty darn good for a short. And it's not really all that 'short'. Think of it as a less-than-medium-size-story.

If you're an Andrews fan, you'll read this regardless. Because they are magic. The good kind, though. There's just something about this kid that makes me want to read about her.

The idea that your powers make it so that you never know when someone truly lov Pretty darn good for a short. The idea that your powers make it so that you never know when someone truly loves you?

Of course, I'm sure there must be a way around that Very cool. View all 13 comments. Happy reading!

There is an investigation. I think this novella packs a punch, and I knew these authors would deliver. A must-read for fans of the series.

Thank you Edelweiss and publisher for providing an eARC for an honest review. Got approved through Edelweiss. View all 4 comments. It ties up a few loose ends, raises a whole new set of questions and gives us just a tiny hint of the kind of main character 1st read - 15th August 2nd read - 27th August 3rd read - November 4th read - March 5th read - August 6th read - May 7th read - August Diamond Fire is a novella in the Hidden Legacy series that bridges from the first trilogy told in Nevada's point of view and helps us transition into the upcoming trilogy that will have Catalina at the forefront.

It ties up a few loose ends, raises a whole new set of questions and gives us just a tiny hint of the kind of main character that Catalina is going to be.

I have to confess that I was kind of hoping this story would be told entirely from Nevada's point of view, I'm a teeny bit obsessed with Nevada and Rogan so I was hoping for one last story with them entirely front and centre let's face it, I just wanted more tactile sexy times!

I really enjoyed the chance to see Nevada and Rogan take this next big step in their relationship and I'll be happy to see the occasional glimpse of them in the background as the series continues but I absolutely loved getting to know Catalina better.

Catalina is a very different type of heroine to Nevada, she's less confident and more self conscious, especially when it comes to her magic, but she's just as protective of the people she cares about and equally capable of standing up to anyone who threatens her family.

I really enjoyed seeing Nevada and the rest of the family through Catalina's eyes and I loved getting to know Rogan's mother a little better as she takes Catalina under her wing.

I think what is going to be really nice about Catalina's story is that we're probably going to get to know the younger members of House Baylor a little better, Nevada was quite a bit older than her sisters and cousin Leon so Catalina has a different type of relationship with Arabella which will be fun to explore.

While this story is very much about Catalina and Arabella helping to plan the wedding of the century it is also a mystery with a possible thief amongst Rogan's closest family members and a potential plot that could put the entire wedding party in danger.

Catalina doesn't want to worry her sister so she's going to have to do the one thing she really hates doing and start using her magic to help her figure out what is going on.

We've already seen a little of Catalina's powers in the past but we find out so much more of what she can do here and I can't wait to see her exploring her ability further as the series continues.

Diamond Fire was a fantastic story that left me with a massive smile on my face about Nevada and Rogan's HEA and also left me ridiculously excited to get my hands on Catalina's spin off series.

I've been a huge Ilona Andrews fan for a long time now but their stories honestly just get better and better every time. I'll confess I was hoping for a little more Nevada and Rogan sexy time BUT I absolutely loved getting Catalina's POV, she's very different to her big sister but super sweet and I'm looking forward to her trilogy even more now.

Rogan's mother is fantastic, the wedding planning was hilarious and we get to spend time with Nevada's fab family which is always fun.

Hell, what more do I actually need to know? Is it November yet? How many times do we think I can manage to reread the first 3 books between now and the release date?

I am so bloody excited about this spin off! View all 15 comments. Loved it even if I missed Nevadas voice. My phone chimed. A text from Rogan.

It was absurd. I was a trained private investigator with almost ten years of experience. Baylor Investigative Agency existed today because I took it over when Dad got sick and made it successful against all odds.

Not only that, but I was a Prime, the highest level of magic user one could reach. My paternal grandmother had the same talent, and people cringed when they heard her name.

I had stood up to her and to a dozen of other Primes. I had a bus almost dropped on me, I faced a psionic who nearly destroyed my mind, and I told Connor Rogan, the Scourge of Mexico, no repeatedly and stood my ground.

I could do this. I got up, put my plate into the sink, hugged my mom, and went to the door. A gunmetal grey Range Rover waited in front of our warehouse.

Rogan leaned against it. No matter what he wore, Rogan always had a kind of rugged masculinity about him. You got a sense that nothing would knock him off his stride.

The fact that he was huge, over six feet tall and built like he fought people for a living, only added to it. Today he wore a pair of jeans and an olive T-shirt.

Oh no. I stopped. His dark blue eyes laughed at me. He leaned down and kissed me. He tasted of mint and coffee and the touch of his lips anchored me.

You know what, it would be fine. I glanced in that direction.

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You Flipper Online Spielen here: Magic: The Gathering. But she's a Baylor and there's nothing she wouldn't do for her sister's happiness. Privacy Policy Imprint. New Items. Some cookies are technically necessary, others are for anonymous statistical purposes. To Book Of Ra Oyna this wedding happen, Catalina will have to do the thing she fears most: use her magic. All rights reserved. YI drill Handmade Store. Diamond And Fire Guide For Free & Fire FF With attractive appearance and easy navigation to use, there is a step by step guide that show you how play like a professional in jump. Suchen Sie nach diamond fire-Stockbildern in HD und Millionen weiteren lizenzfreien Stockfotos, Illustrationen und Vektorgrafiken in der Shutterstock-​Kollektion. Coal Diamond Coal D Day Fire edp vapo 25 ml, 1er Pack (1 x 25 ml): vcd-vl.be: Belleza. Fire Diamond - Through our years-experience we guarantee, that the item is a proved original Magic-card!This item is part of our loyalty program! Über eBooks bei Thalia ✓»Diamond Fire«von Ilona Andrews & weitere eBooks online kaufen & direkt downloaden!

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Simon G Jewelry Tacori Jewelry. Diamond Fire — What exactly is it and how does it come about? By Bryan Boyne g. When we think about what makes a diamond beautiful, two words generally come to mind; fire and brilliance.

Most people tend to think of them as one-in-the-same — basically the degree to which the diamond sparkles.

But the two are actually distinct optical aspects. Brilliance can be thought of as brightness and scintillation; small flashes of bright white light.

Fire is the dispersion of white light into rainbow colors as a result of refraction. It is therefore best to think of brilliance as white sparkles, and fire as color sparkles.

Visible light is part of a spectrum of electromagnetic energy that travels in waves. White light is made up of many wavelengths, each corresponding to a specific color.

When light enters a transparent substance such as water, glass, or diamond, it slows down significantly. Upon exiting the material back into air it speeds up again.

The video above is a comparison of two diamonds of different cut qualities, set side by side for the purposes of evaluating their ability to produce fire events in a lighting environment conducive to seeing this effect.

The diamond on the left is a 0. Experiencing fire in a diamond is similar to seeing a rainbow after a rain shower. It is always remarkable in its beauty and fleeting in its presence, which makes it all the more special.

In a rainbow, the water vapor in the atmosphere acts as a prism as light travels through it. A faceted diamond also acts as a prism as light slows down upon entering and speeds up upon exiting the facets.

When a light beam traveling at , miles per second goes from air and enters a transparent material such as glass or diamond, it is slowed down considerably.

Diamond happens to have a very high refractive index. The higher the refractive index, the greater the potential for dispersion.

While diamond therefore has a very high potential to exhibit fire, the quality of the cut is the key to whether that fire potential is realized.

The Role of Diamond Proportions. Through ray tracing it is possible to calculate the amount and location of dispersion of the light that the diamond is returning to the eye.

The basic proportions must be within a relatively narrow range to provide a foundation for the generation of significant fire. The Role of the Light Source.

Our ability to observe fire also requires the proper lighting conditions. Like the aftermath of a rain shower that does not produce a rainbow, a well cut diamond in certain types of lighting environments will not produce fire.

Singular, direct light sources of small angular size are more likely to produce fire than large diffuse sources.

Outdoors, in direct sunlight, a diamond can exhibit excellent fire. However, if there is cloud cover, the light will be diffused.

While this might be an optimal lighting environment for observing a diamond's brightness and contrast patterns, fire will be almost completely suppressed.

You may find this type of lighting in restaurants, stores, and even in elevators! By contrast, typical office lighting with long fluorescent tubes covered by plastic diffusers creates a lighting environment that suppresses fire.

Fortunately, LED lighting is becoming ever more common and often features multiple small sources which are good for the observation of fire.

The videos on this page were created in a controlled lighting environment with multiple LED light sources. Whether an observer perceives a colored sparkle fire , depends on a number of factors including the viewing distance from the diamond.

As a dispersed beam of light exits the diamond, the different wavelengths have different trajectories that cause them to fan out even further with distance, increasing the chance that they can be clipped.

Photo courtesy of GemConcepts Ltd. These are areas of the diamond that reflect light back to the eye. The number of virtual facets is much greater than the number of physical facets, as a single facet can reflect light rays from multiple sources and directions.

The thick part of the girdle is normally about 1. The further the diamond's characteristics are from the Tolkowsky's ideal, the less light will be reflected.

However, there is a small range in which the diamond can be considered "ideal". Tolkowsky's calculations can be repeated for a narrow range of pavilion angles.

Such calculations show a slightly larger table percentage, and a trade-off between pavilion angle and crown angle.

Today, because of the relative importance of carat weight among buyers, many diamonds are often intentionally cut poorly to increase carat weight.

There is a financial premium for a diamond that weighs the desirable 1. Neither of these changes makes the diamond appear any larger, and both greatly reduce the sparkle of the diamond.

A poorly cut 1. The depth percentage is the overall quickest indication of the quality of the cut of a round brilliant. Another quick indication is the overall diameter.

Typically a round brilliant 1. Mathematically, the diameter in millimeters of a round brilliant should approximately equal to 6. Diamonds do not show all of their beauty as rough stones; instead, they must be cut and polished to exhibit the characteristic fire and brilliance that diamond gemstones are known for.

Diamonds are cut into a variety of shapes that are generally designed to accentuate these features. Diamonds which are not cut into a round brilliant shape are known as "fancy cuts.

Newer cuts that have been introduced into the jewelry industry are the "cushion" "radiant" similar to princess cuts, but with rounded edges instead of square edges and Asscher cuts.

Many fancy colored diamonds are now being cut according to these new styles. Generally speaking, these "fancy cuts" are not held to the same strict standards as Tolkowsky-derived round brilliants and there are less specific mathematical guidelines of angles which determine a well-cut stone.

Cuts are influenced heavily by fashion: the baguette cut—which accentuates a diamond's luster and downplays its fire—was popular during the Art Deco period, whereas the princess cut — which accentuates a diamond's fire rather than its luster — is currently gaining popularity.

The princess cut is also popular amongst diamond cutters: of all the cuts, it wastes the least of the original crystal. The past decades have seen the development of new diamond cuts, often based on a modification of an existing cut.

Some of these include extra facets. These newly developed cuts are viewed by many as more of an attempt at brand differentiation by diamond sellers, than actual improvements to the state of the art.

The quality of a diamond's cut is widely considered the most important of the four Cs in determining the beauty of a diamond; indeed, it is commonly acknowledged that a well-cut diamond can appear to be of greater carat weight, and have clarity and color appear to be of better grade than they actually are.

The skill with which a diamond is cut determines its ability to reflect and refract light. In addition to carrying the most importance to a diamond's quality as a gemstone, the cut is also the most difficult to quantitatively judge.

A number of factors, including proportion, polish, symmetry , and the relative angles of various facets, are determined by the quality of the cut and can affect the performance of a diamond.

A diamond with facets cut only a few degrees out of alignment can result in a poorly performing stone. For a round brilliant cut, there is a balance between "brilliance" and "fire".

When a diamond is cut for too much "fire", it looks like a cubic zirconia , which gives off much more "fire" than real diamond.

A well-executed round brilliant cut should reflect light upwards and make the diamond appear white when viewed from the top. An inferior cut will produce a stone that appears dark at the center and in extreme cases the setting may be seen through the top of the diamond as shadows.

Several different theories on the "ideal" proportions of a diamond have been and continue to be advocated by various owners of patents on machines to view how well a diamond is cut.

These advocate a shift away from grading cut by the use of various angles and proportions toward measuring the performance of a cut stone.

A number of specially modified viewers and machines have been developed toward this end. Hearts and Arrows viewers test for the " hearts and arrows " characteristic pattern observable in stones exhibiting high symmetry and particular cut angles.

Closely related to Hearts and Arrows viewers is the ASET which tests for light leakage, light return, and proportions. Detractors, however, see these machines as marketing tools rather than scientific ones.

The GIA has developed a set of criteria for grading the cut of round brilliant stones that is now the standard in the diamond industry and is called Facetware.

The process of shaping a rough diamond into a polished gemstone is both an art and a science. The choice of cut is often decided by the original shape of the rough stone, location of the inclusions and flaws to be eliminated, the preservation of the weight, popularity of certain shapes amongst consumers and many other considerations.

Oddly shaped crystals such as macles are more likely to be cut in a fancy cut —that is, a cut other than the round brilliant—which the particular crystal shape lends itself to.

Since the per carat price of diamond shifts around key milestones such as 1. Some jewelry experts advise consumers to buy a 0. In the gem trade, the term light performance is used to describe how well a polished diamond will return light to the viewer.

There are three light properties which are described in relation to light performance: brilliance, fire, and scintillation. Brilliance refers to the white light reflections from the external and internal facet surfaces.

Fire refers to the spectral colors which are produced as a result of the diamond dispersing the white light. Scintillation refers to the small flashes of light that are seen when the diamond, light source or the viewer is moved.

A diamond that is cut and polished to produce a high level of these qualities is said to be high in light performance.

The setting diamonds are placed in also affect the performance of light through a diamond. The three most commonly used settings are: Prong, Bezel, and Channel.

Prong settings are the most popular setting for diamond jewelry. The prong setting consists of four or six 'claws' that cradle the diamond, allowing the maximum amount of light to enter from all angles, allowing the diamonds to appear larger and more brilliant.

In bezel settings the diamond or gemstone is completely surrounded by a rim of metal, which can be molded into any shape to accommodate the stone.

Used to set earrings, necklaces, bracelets, and rings, bezel settings can have open or closed backs, and generally can be molded to allow a lot of light to pass through.

Channel settings set the stones right next to each other with no metal separating them. This setting is mostly used in wedding and anniversary bands.

The outer ridge is then worked over the edges of the stones to create a smooth exterior surface. This also protects the girdle area of the stone.

About a third of all diamonds will glow under ultraviolet light, usually a blue color, which may be noticeable under a black light or strong sunlight.

Other colors diamonds can fluoresce are green , yellow , and red , but are very rare and are sometimes a combination of the colors such as blue-green or orange.

Some diamonds with "very strong" fluorescence can have a "milky" or "oily" look to them, but they are also very rare and are termed "over-blues.

Cleanliness significantly affects a diamond's beauty. A clean diamond is more brilliant and fiery than the same diamond when it is "dirty".

Dirt or grease on the top of a diamond reduces its luster. Water, dirt, or grease on the bottom of a diamond interferes with the diamond's brilliance and fire.

Even a thin film absorbs some light that could have been reflected to the viewer. Colored dye or smudges can affect the perceived color of a diamond.

Historically, some jewelers' stones were misgraded because of smudges on the girdle, or dye on the culet. Current practice is to clean a diamond thoroughly before grading its color.

Maintaining a clean diamond can sometimes be difficult as jewelry settings can obstruct cleaning, and oils, grease, and other hydrophobic materials adhere well to a diamond.

Many jewelers use steam cleaners. Some jewelers provide their customers with ammonia -based cleaning kits; ultrasonic cleaners are also popular.

Historically, it has been claimed that diamonds possess several supernatural powers:. Because of their extraordinary physical properties , diamonds have been used symbolically since near the time of their first discovery.

Perhaps the earliest symbolic use of diamonds was as the eyes of Hindu devotional statues. Vajra is the word for diamond and ayudham means weapon in Sanskrit.

Another name for it was Agira which means fire or the sun. In fact there are 14 names counted to be given to a diamond in traditional Hinduism.

The oldest dated printed book in the world is called the Diamond Sutra , a Chinese text dating from and was found in the Mogao Caves. Sutras are most used to describe the teachings of Buddha.

In this case the title of the Sutra refers not to the diamond itself but to a 'diamond blade that will cut through worldly illusion to illuminate what is real and everlasting'.

Jewel imagery forms a central part of Buddhism: the triple-jewel represents 'Buddha', his teachings 'Dharma' and the spiritual community 'Shangha'. The book presently resides in the British Library.

Many cultures use divine intervention to explain the origin and creation of gemstones, and diamonds were no exception to this. In Greek mythology for example it was the youth on the island of Crete that disturbed Zeus and who were then as a form of punishment transformed into the adamas.

Philosophers however had a more naturalistic approach to explain the origin of gems: Plato for example believed gemstones were a consequence of fermentation in the stars, where a diamond actually formed the kernel of gold-bearing mass.

In later times, Robert Boyle actually believed that gems including a diamond were formed of clear, transparent water, and that their colors and characteristics were derived from their metallic spirit.

The diamond is the birthstone for people born in the month of April, and is also used as the symbol of a sixty-year anniversary , such as a Diamond Jubilee see hierarchy of precious substances.

In a system of heraldry by gemstone occasionally used in the past for the arms of nobles, diamond was used to represent the color sable, or black.

The origin of the custom to use diamonds in rings, and more recently, in engagement rings , can be traced back to the Middle Ages and even the Romans.

The Romans valued the diamond entirely on account of the supernatural powers they ascribed to it. Pliny wrote that a diamond baffles poison, keeps off insanity, and dispels vain fears.

On this account it was recommended as the stone to be set in wedding or espousal rings—not on account of its beauty therefore, which was described by Isidore of Seville as a small stone devoid of beauty.

In more recent times a Parisian Oracle of mystic subjects, the Baron d'Orchamps, announced the diamond, if worn on the left hand warded off evil influences and attracted good fortune and since he had fashionable clients the word spread and the wearing of the diamond on the left hand became in itself a fashion.

One of the first occurrences of the diamond engagement or wedding ring can be traced back to the marriage of Maximilian I then Archduke of Austria to Mary of Burgundy in The popularity of the diamond ring as an engagement ring for a much wider audience can be traced directly to the marketing campaigns of De Beers , starting in In the early 20th century, a chairman of De Beers optimistically predicted that the diamond trade would prosper "so long as men are foolish and women are vain.

Today, the round brilliant is still the most popular diamond shape for an engagement ring. More than 60 percent of diamonds on the market are brilliants.

Diamond And Fire Video

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