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Gabbard diagrams of the early debris cloud prior to the effects of perturbations, if the data were available, are reconstructed.

They often include data on newly observed, as yet uncatalogued fragments. Gabbard diagrams can provide important insights into the features of the fragmentation, the direction and point of impact.

An average of about one tracked object per day has been dropping out of orbit for the past 50 years, [] averaging almost three objects per day at solar maximum due to the heating and expansion of the Earth's atmosphere , but one about every three days at solar minimum , usually five and a half years later.

A number of scholars have also observed that institutional factors —political, legal, economic and cultural "rules of the game"—are the greatest impediment to the cleanup of near-Earth space.

There is no commercial incentive, since costs aren't assigned to polluters , but a number of suggestions have been made. In the US, governmental bodies have been accused of backsliding on previous commitments to limit debris growth, "let alone tackling the more complex issues of removing orbital debris.

As of the s, several technical approaches to the mitigation of the growth of space debris are typically undertaken, yet no comprehensive legal regime or cost assignment structure is in place to reduce space debris in the way that terrestrial pollution has reduced since the midth century.

To avoid excessive creation of artificial space debris, many—but not all—satellites launched to above-low-Earth-orbit are launched initially into elliptical orbits with perigees inside Earth's atmosphere so the orbit will quickly decay and the satellites then will destroy themselves upon reentry into the atmosphere.

Other methods are used for spacecraft in higher orbits. These include passivation of the spacecraft at the end of its useful life; as well as use of upper stages that can reignite to decelerate the stage to intentionally deorbit it, often on the first or second orbit following payload release; satellites that can, if they remain healthy for years, deorbit themselves from the lower orbits around Earth.

Increasingly, spent upper stages in higher orbits—orbits for which low-delta-v deorbit is not possible, or not planned for—and architectures that support satellite passivation, at end of life are passivated at end of life.

This removes any internal energy contained in the vehicle at the end of its mission or useful life. While this does not remove the debris of the now derelict rocket stage or satellite itself, it does substantially reduce the likelihood of the spacecraft destructing and creating many smaller pieces of space debris, a phenomenon that was common in many of the early generations of US and Soviet [61] spacecraft.

Upper stage passivation e. Both companies committed to a deorbit plan for post-mission satellites which will explicitly move the satellites into orbits where they will reenter the Earth's atmosphere within approximately one year following end-of-life.

With a "one-up, one-down" launch-license policy for Earth orbits, launchers would rendezvous with, capture and de-orbit a derelict satellite from approximately the same orbital plane.

Experiments have been flown by NASA, [] and SpaceX is developing large-scale on-orbit propellant transfer technology.

Another approach to debris mitigation is to explicitly design the mission architecture to always leave the rocket second-stage in an elliptical geocentric orbit with a low- perigee , thus ensuring rapid orbital decay and avoiding long-term orbital debris from spent rocket bodies.

Such missions will often complete the payload placement in a final orbit by the use of low-thrust electric propulsion or with the use of a small kick stage to circularize the orbit.

The kick stage itself may be designed with the excess-propellant capability to be able to self-deorbit. Although the ITU requires geostationary satellites to move to a graveyard orbit at the end of their lives, the selected orbital areas do not sufficiently protect GEO lanes from debris.

The Iridium constellation —95 communication satellites launched during the five-year period between and —provides a set of data points on the limits of self-removal.

The satellite operator— Iridium Communications —remained operational albeit with a company name change through a corporate bankruptcy during the period over the two-decade life of the satellites, and by December , had "completed disposal of the last of its 65 working legacy satellites.

Passive methods of increasing the orbital decay rate of spacecraft debris have been proposed. Instead of rockets, an electrodynamic tether could be attached to a spacecraft at launch; at the end of its lifetime, the tether would be rolled out to slow the spacecraft.

A variety of approaches have been proposed, studied, or had ground subsystems built to use other spacecraft to remove existing space debris.

To date in , removal costs and legal questions about ownership and the authority to remove defunct satellites have stymied national or international action.

Current space law retains ownership of all satellites with their original operators, even debris or spacecraft which are defunct or threaten active missions.

Moreover, as of [update] , the cost of any of the proposed approaches for external removal is about the same as launching a spacecraft [ failed verification ] and, according to NASA's Nicholas Johnson, [ when?

This is beginning to change in the late s, as some companies have made plans to begin to do external removal on their satellites in mid-LEO orbits.

For example, OneWeb will utilize on-board self-removal as "plan A" for satellite deorbiting at the end of life, but if a satellite is unable to remove itself within one year of end of life, OneWeb will implement "plan B" and dispatch a reusable multi-transport mission space tug to attach to the satellite at an already built-in capture target via a grappling fixture, to be towed to a lower orbit and released for reentry.

A well-studied solution uses a remotely controlled vehicle to rendezvous with, capture and return debris to a central station. A variation of this approach is for the remotely controlled vehicle to rendezvous with debris, capture it temporarily to attach a smaller de-orbit satellite and drag the debris with a tether to the desired location.

The "mothership" would then tow the debris-smallsat combination for atmospheric entry or move it to a graveyard orbit.

On 7 January Star, Inc. In December , the European Space Agency awarded the first contract to clean up space debris.

A "chaser" will grab the junk with four robotic arms and drag it down to Earth's atmosphere where both will burn up.

The laser broom uses a ground-based laser to ablate the front of the debris, producing a rocket-like thrust which slows the object.

With continued application, the debris would fall enough to be influenced by atmospheric drag. Air Force's Project Orion was a laser-broom design. There's a reason why it's been sitting on the shelf for more than a decade.

The momentum of the laser-beam photons could directly impart a thrust on the debris sufficient to move small debris into new orbits out of the way of working satellites.

The launch was an operational test only. Since , the European Space Agency has been working on the design of a mission to remove large space debris from orbit.

The mission, e. In order to complete its planned experiments the platform is equipped with a net, a harpoon, a laser ranging instrument, a dragsail, and two CubeSats miniature research satellites.

There is no international treaty minimizing space debris. As of , the committee was discussing international "rules of the road" to prevent collisions between satellites.

In , the European Space Agency ESA worked with an international group to promulgate a similar set of standards, also with a "year rule" applying to most Earth-orbit satellites and upper stages.

By , the Indian Space Research Organization ISRO had developed a number of technical means of debris mitigation upper stage passivation, propellant reserves for movement to graveyard orbits, etc.

In , the ISO began preparing an international standard for space-debris mitigation. However, these standards are not binding on any party by ISO or any international jurisdiction.

They are simply available for use in any of a variety of voluntary ways. They "can be adopted voluntarily by a spacecraft manufacturer or operator, or brought into effect through a commercial contract between a customer and supplier, or used as the basis for establishing a set of national regulations on space debris mitigation.

Ideally, the time to deorbit should be as short as possible i. Holger Krag of the European Space Agency states that as of there is no binding international regulatory framework with no progress occurring at the respective UN body in Vienna.

Until the End of the World is a French sci-fi drama set under backdrop of an out of control Indian nuclear satellite, predicted to re-enter the atmosphere, threatening vast populated areas of the Earth.

Gravity is a survival film, directed by Alfonso Cuaron, about a disaster on a space mission caused by Kessler syndrome. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Space Junk disambiguation. The pollution of orbit around Earth by defunct human-made objects. See also: Kosmos , Kosmos , and Derelict satellites orbiting Earth.

Main article: Kessler syndrome. See also: Satellite tracking. The Guardian. Archived from the original on 8 November Retrieved 28 December Archived from the original on 26 August Retrieved 13 August The University of Chicago Press.

Archived PDF from the original on 17 June Retrieved 13 December The Economic Way of Thinking 13th ed.

Chicago Journal of International Law. University of Chicago Law School. Archived from the original on 13 December Orbital Debris Quarterly News.

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Archived from the original PDF on 24 July Archived from the original PDF on 20 October Retrieved 1 January Kessler 8 March Archived from the original on 27 May Retrieved 22 September Space Debris: Models and Risk Analysis"].

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Vladimir Komarov. The one-day mission was plagued by a series of mishaps with the new spacecraft type, culminating with its parachute not opening properly after atmospheric reentry.

Komarov was killed when the capsule hit the ground at high speed. The crew of Soyuz 11 were killed after undocking from space station Salyut 1 after a three-week stay.

A cabin vent valve construction defect caused it to open at service module separation. The recovery team found the crew dead.

Vehicle disintegration on re-entry — Space Shuttle Columbia disaster. Rick D. Investigation revealed damage to the reinforced carbon-carbon leading edge wing panel resulted from the impact of a piece of foam insulation that broke away from the external tank during the launch.

X Flight Michael J. During X Flight , Adams' seventh flight, the plane had an electrical problem followed by control problems at the apogee of its flight.

The pilot may also have become disoriented. The pilot recovered, but went into a Mach 4. Excessive loading led to structural breakup at about 65, feet Launch booster failure, vehicle disintegration during launch — Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.

The investigation found that cold weather conditions caused an O-ring seal to fail, allowing hot gases from the shuttle solid rocket booster SRB to impinge on the external propellant tank and booster strut.

The strut and aft end of the tank failed, allowing the top of the SRB to rotate into the top of the tank.

Challenger was thrown sideways into the Mach 1. NASA investigators determined they may have survived the spacecraft disintegration, possibly unconscious from hypoxia ; some tried to activate their emergency oxygen.

Valentin Bondarenko. First space-related fatality. He suffered third-degree burns over most of his body and face, and died in a hospital 16 hours later.

Theodore Freeman. Before being selected for a Gemini crew, Freeman was flying a T jet trainer on landing approach to Ellington AFB near Houston, TX, when a goose struck the left side of the cockpit canopy.

Shards of Plexiglas entered the engine intake and caused both engines to flame out. Freeman ejected too close to the ground for his parachute to open properly.

Elliot See Charles Bassett. Louis, Missouri in bad weather, and crashed into the adjacent McDonnell Aircraft factory, where they were going for simulator training for their Gemini 9 flight.

An electrical fire in the cabin spread quickly in the pure oxygen atmosphere and claimed the lives of all three Apollo 1 crew members during a "plugs-out" test in preparation for their planned February 21 launch.

Clifton C. Manned Orbiting Laboratory. Robert Henry Lawrence Jr. Both crewmen ejected; Royer survived with injuries, but Lawrence, the instructor pilot, was found in his ejection seat, parachute not fully deployed.

Sergei Vozovikov. His Cosmonaut training was from 1 October to 6 March Spaceplane crash during test flight. Michael Alsbury.

Michael Alsbury was killed and Peter Siebold was seriously injured when SpaceShipTwo VSS Enterprise disintegrated during a powered atmospheric test flight over California due to premature deployment of the feathering system.

After retrofire, the Vostok service module unexpectedly remained attached to the reentry module by a bundle of wires.

The two halves of the craft were supposed to separate ten seconds after retrofire. But they did not separate until 10 minutes after retrofire, when the wire bundle finally burned through.

The spacecraft went into wild gyrations at the beginning of reentry, before the wires burned through and the reentry module settled into the proper reentry attitude.

After splashdown in the Atlantic Ocean , the hatch malfunctioned and blew, filling the capsule with water and almost drowning Gus Grissom , who managed to escape before it sank.

Grissom then had to deal with a spacesuit that was rapidly filling with water, but managed to get into the helicopter's retrieval collar and was lifted to safety.

An unexploded SOFAR bomb , designed for sound fixing and ranging in case the craft sank, had failed and had to be dealt with when it was recovered from the ocean floor in The mission featured the world's first spacewalk , by Alexei Leonov.

After his twelve minutes outside, Leonov's spacesuit inflated in the vacuum to the point where he could not reenter the airlock. He opened a valve to allow some of the suit's pressure to bleed off, and was barely able to get back inside the capsule after suffering side effects of the bends.

They spent a night sheltering in the capsule from the cold, and a second night in a temporary hut built by rescuers before skiing with them to a clearing where a helicopter flew them to Perm.

The first on-pad shutdown in the US Manned Program. A maneuvering thruster refused to shut down and put their capsule into an uncontrolled spin.

Mission rules required a landing as soon as possible once the reentry thrusters were used, causing an early end to the flight.

Harrowing reentry and landing when the capsule's service module initially refused to separate, causing the spacecraft to begin reentry faced the wrong way.

The service module broke away before the capsule would have been destroyed, and so it made a rough but survivable landing far off course in the Ural mountains.

Two lightning strikes during launch. The first strike, at 36 seconds after liftoff, knocked the three fuel cells offline and the craft switched to battery power automatically.

The second strike, at 52 seconds after liftoff, knocked the onboard guidance platform offline. Four temperature sensors on the outside of the Lunar Module were burnt out and four measuring devices in the reaction control system failed temporarily.

Fuel cell power was restored about four minutes later. The astronauts spent additional time in Earth orbit to make sure the spacecraft was functional before firing their S-IVB third stage engine and departing for the Moon.

Astronaut Alan Bean was struck above the right eyebrow by a 16mm movie camera when the spacecraft splashed down in the ocean. The camera broke free from its storage place.

Bean suffered a concussion , [43] and a 1. During launch, the Saturn V second stage experienced a premature shutdown on one of its five engines.

The center engine shut down two minutes early. The remaining engines on the second and third stages were burned a total of 34 seconds longer to compensate.

It was later determined that the shutdown was caused by pogo oscillation of the engine. Parking orbit and translunar injection were successfully achieved.

The crew came home safely after a violent rupture of a liquid oxygen tank [48] deprived the Service Module of its ability to produce electrical power, crippling their spacecraft en route to the Moon.

They survived the loss of use of their command ship by relying on the Lunar Module as a "life boat" to provide life support and power for the trip home.

During descent, the three main parachutes opened successfully. However, when the remaining reaction control system fuel was jettisoned, one parachute was damaged by the discarded fuel causing it to collapse.

Spacecraft and crew still splashed down safely, at a slightly higher than normal velocity, on the two remaining main parachutes.

If a second parachute had failed, the spacecraft would probably have been crushed on impact with the ocean, according to a NASA official.

Soyuz 18a. The mission nearly ended in disaster when the rocket suffered a second-stage separation failure during launch.

This also interrupted the craft's attitude, causing the vehicle to accelerate towards the Earth and triggering an emergency reentry sequence.

Due to the downward acceleration, the crew experienced an acceleration of Upon landing, the vehicle rolled down a hill and stopped just short of a high cliff.

The crew survived, but Lazarev, the mission commander, suffered internal injuries due to the severe G-forces and was never able to fly again. Apollo-Soyuz Test Project.

During final descent and parachute deployment, the U. Vance Brand lost consciousness for a short time. The crew members suffered from burning sensations of their eyes, faces, noses, throats and lungs.

Thomas Stafford quickly broke out emergency oxygen masks and put one on Brand and gave one to Deke Slayton.

About an hour after landing the crew developed chemical-induced pneumonia and their lungs had edema. They experienced shortness of breath and were hospitalized in Hawaii.

The crew spent five days in the hospital, followed by a week of observation in semi-isolation. By July 30, their chest X-rays appeared to return to normal except for Slayton; he was diagnosed with a benign lesion, unrelated to the gas exposure, which was later removed.

The capsule broke through the surface of a frozen lake and was dragged underwater by its parachute. The crew was saved after a very difficult rescue operation.

Engine failure forced the mission to be aborted. It was the first-ever failure of a Soyuz engine during orbital operations. The crew, commander Nikolai Rukavishnikov and Bulgarian cosmonaut Georgi Ivanov , suffered a steep ballistic re-entry, but were safely recovered.

During launch, the Solid Rocket Booster ignition shock wave overpressure was four times greater than expected 2.

Some of the aft structures on Space Shuttle Columbia reached their design limits 2. John Young and Robert Crippen in the crew cabin received a 3-G jolt from the shock wave.

An improved water spray shock wave damping system had to be installed on the launch pad prior to launch. A fuel spillage before the planned liftoff caused the vehicle to be engulfed in flames.

The crew was narrowly saved by the activation of their launch escape system, with the rocket exploding two seconds later.

In the last two minutes of the mission, during Space Shuttle Columbia 's final approach to the Edwards AFB runway, hydrazine fuel leaked onto hot surfaces of two of the three onboard auxiliary power units APU in the aft compartment of the shuttle and caught fire.

About 15 minutes after landing, hydrazine fuel trapped in the APU control valves exploded, destroying the valves in both APUs. The fire also damaged nearby wiring.

The fire stopped when the supply of leaked fuel was exhausted. All of this was discovered the next day when technicians removed an access panel and discovered the area blackened and scorched.

It is believed that hydrazine leaked in orbit and froze, stopping the leak. After returning, the leak restarted and ignited when combined with oxygen from the atmosphere.

There were no injuries during the incident. Five minutes, 45 seconds into ascent, one of three main engines aboard Challenger shut down prematurely due to a spurious high temperature reading.

At about the same time, a second main engine almost shut down from a similar problem, but this was observed and inhibited by a fast acting flight controller.

Had the second engine failed within about 20 seconds of the first, a Transoceanic Abort Landing TAL abort might have been necessary.

But even with that option, a bailout a "contingency abort" would never be considered when an "intact abort" option exists, and after five minutes of normal flight it would always exist unless a serious flight control failure or some other major problem beyond engine shutdown occurred.

During descent they suffered a computer software problem combined with a sensor problem. The deorbit engine on the TM-5 spacecraft which was to propel them into atmospheric reentry , did not behave as expected.

During an attempted burn, the computer shut off the engines prematurely, believing the spacecraft was out of alignment.

But the engines shut off again. The flight director decided that they would have to remain in orbit an extra day a full revolution of the Earth , so they could determine what the problem was.

During this time it was realised that during the second attempted engine burn, the computer had tried to execute the program which was used to dock with Mir several months earlier during EP Space Shuttle Atlantis ' Thermal Protection System tiles sustained unusually severe damage during this flight.

Ablative insulating material from the right-hand solid rocket booster nose cap had hit the orbiter about 85 seconds into the flight, as seen in footage of the ascent.

The crew made an inspection of the Shuttle's impacted starboard side using the Shuttle's Canadarm robot arm, but the limited resolution and range of the cameras made it impossible to determine the full extent of the tile damage.

Following reentry, more than tiles were found to be damaged including one that was missing entirely. STS was the most heavily damaged Shuttle to return to Earth safely.

During an extravehicular activity , a small rod palm bar in a glove of EV2 astronaut Jay Apt 's extravehicular mobility unit punctured the suit.

Somehow, the astronaut's hand conformed to the puncture and sealed it, preventing any detectable depressurization. During post-flight debriefings, Apt said after the second EVA, when he removed the gloves, his right hand index finger had an abrasion behind the knuckle.

A postflight inspection of the right hand glove found the palm bar of the glove penetrating a restraint and glove bladder into the index finger side of the glove.

NASA found air leakage with the bar in place was 3. They said if the bar had come out of the hole, the leak still would not have been great enough to activate the secondary oxygen pack.

The suit would, however, have shown a high oxygen rate indication. While releasing the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite from the payload bay, both the primary and backup explosive release devices detonated.

Only the primary device was supposed to have detonated. Large metal bands holding the satellite in place were ripped away, causing flying debris. The debris punctured the orbiter's payload bay bulkhead leading to the main engine compartment, damaging wiring trays and payload bay thermal insulation blankets.

The crew was uninjured and the damage was not great enough to endanger the shuttle. The satellite was undamaged. Thagard suffered an eye injury.

He was using an exercise device, doing deep knee bends, with elastic straps. One of the straps slipped off of his foot, flew up, and hit him in the eye.

Later, even a small amount of light caused pain in his eye. He said using the eye was, "like looking at the world through gauze. There was a fire on board the Mir space station when a lithium perchlorate canister used to generate oxygen leaked.

The fire was extinguished after about 90 seconds, but smoke did not clear for several minutes. Fuel cell 2 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia unexpectedly failed on Day 4 in orbit, forcing an early end to the flight.

The mission touched down safely, and the crew was reflown with the same mission plan on STS At Mir , during a re-docking test with the Progress M cargo freighter, the Progress freighter collided with the Spektr module and solar arrays of the Mir space station.

This damaged the solar arrays and the collision punctured a hole in the Spektr module and the space station began depressurizing.

The onboard crew of two Russians and one visiting NASA astronaut were able to close off the Spektr module from the rest of Mir after quickly cutting cables and hoses blocking the hatch closure.

Five seconds after liftoff, an electrical short knocked out controllers for two shuttle main engines. The engines automatically switched to their backup controllers.

Had a further short shut down two engines, Columbia would have ditched in the ocean, although the crew could have possibly bailed out.

Concurrently a pin came loose inside one engine and ruptured a cooling line, allowing a hydrogen fuel leak. This caused premature fuel exhaustion, but the vehicle safely achieved a slightly lower orbit.

Had the failure propagated further, a risky transatlantic or RTLS abort would have been required. Curbeam and Thomas D. Jones were connecting cooling lines on the International Space Station while working to install the Destiny Laboratory Module.

The escaping ammonia froze on the spacesuit of astronaut Curbeam as he struggled to close the valve. His helmet and suit were coated in ammonia crystals an inch thick.

Mission Control instructed Curbeam to remain outside for an entire orbit to allow the Sun to evaporate the frozen ammonia from his spacesuit.

When they returned to the airlock, the astronauts pressurized, vented and then repressurized the air lock to purge any remaining toxic ammonia.

After they removed their spacesuits, the crew wore oxygen masks for another 20 minutes to allow life-support systems in the airlock to further filter the air.

No injuries resulted from the incident. The capsule had a malfunction during its return to Earth from the ISS Expedition 6 mission and performed a ballistic reentry.

The crew was subjected to about 8 to 9 Gs during reentry. Astronaut Don Pettit injured his shoulder and was placed on a stretcher in a rescue helicopter and did not take part in post-landing ceremonies.

The rolls began at 50 seconds into the engine burn. The burn was stopped 11 seconds early after burning a total of 76 seconds. After engine cutoff, the craft continued rolling while coasting to apogee.

The roll was finally brought under control after apogee using the craft's reaction jets. SpaceShipOne landed safely and Mike Melvill was uninjured.

Reentry mishap similar to that suffered by Soyuz 5 in The service module failed to completely separate from the reentry vehicle and caused it to face the wrong way during the early portion of aerobraking.

As with Soyuz 5, the service module eventually separated and the reentry vehicle completed a rough but survivable landing.

Following the Russian news agency Interfax 's report, this was widely reported as life-threatening [72] [73] while NASA urged caution pending an investigation of the vehicle.

The South Korean Science Ministry said that the astronaut had a minor injury to her neck muscles and had bruised her spinal column.

ISS Expedition Flight controllers elected to abort the EVA immediately, and Parmitano made his way back to the Quest airlock , followed by fellow astronaut Chris Cassidy.

The airlock began repressurizing after a 1-hour and 32 minute spacewalk, and by this time Parmitano was having difficulty seeing, hearing, and speaking due to the amount of water in his suit.

After repressurization, Expedition 36 commander Pavel Vinogradov and crewmembers Fyodor Yurchikhin and Karen Nyberg quickly removed Parmitano's helmet and soaked up the water with towels.

Despite the incident, Parmitano was reported to be in good spirits and suffered no injury. The designers failed to take into account the physics of water in zero-g, which unintentionally allowed coolant water to mix with the air supply.

Ground controllers detected a dip in cabin pressure, which astronauts traced to a 2-millimeter hole in Soyuz MS , which was quickly patched up by Soyuz commander Sergey Prokopyev with epoxy.

The crew reported feeling weightless; mission control declared a rocket had failed. An emergency was declared and the spacecraft carrying the crew was separated from the rocket.

It returned to Earth in a ballistic descent sharper than normal angle , and the crew experienced 6. Investigation determined the ball joint supporting one of the side boosters had been deformed during assembly; the damaged joint prevented proper separation despite proper activation of the separation motors; the booster re-contacted the core stage, inflicting further damage.

Berlin , Germany. Max Valier , "first casualty of the modern space age", [84] killed by rocket engine explosion.

Mount Redoria near Milan , Italy. Darwin Lyon , exploded during tests, killing a mechanic and injuring three others.

Lyon was not present when the explosion occurred. Explosion in rocket manufacturing room of Reinhold Tiling [87]. The Nedelin catastrophe caused by ignition of second-stage engines on the pad.

On the same day as the Nedelin catastrophe, another catastrophe took place: due to the evaporation of fuel and a short circuit, a fire took the lives of 7 [90] or 8 [91] people.

Since then, 24 October is considered a "Black Day", and Russia has not launched rockets on that day. The third stage of a Delta rocket had just been joined to the Orbiting Solar Observatory satellite in the spin test facility building at Cape Kennedy.

Sidney Dagle, 29; Lot D. Gabel, 51, and John Fassett, 30, were severely burned and later died of their injuries.

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At one point on the tape, Mission Control asked Clark to perform some small task. She replied that she was currently occupied but would get to it in a minute.

They were followed seconds and minutes later by several other problems, including loss of tire pressure indications on the left main gear and then indications of excessive structural heating".

The investigation focused on the foam strike from the very beginning. Incidents of debris strikes from ice and foam causing damage during take-off were already well known, and had damaged orbiters, most noticeably during STS , STS , and STS Following protocols established after the loss of Challenger , an independent investigating board was created immediately after the accident.

Navy Admiral Harold W. Gehman, Jr. Columbia ' s flight data recorder was found near Hemphill, Texas , on March 19, Instead, the vehicle data were transmitted in real time to the ground via telemetry.

Since Columbia was the first shuttle, it had a special flight data OEX Orbiter EXperiments recorder, designed to help engineers better understand vehicle performance during the first test flights.

The recorder was left in Columbia after the initial Shuttle test-flights were completed, and it was still functioning on the crashed flight.

It recorded many hundreds of parameters, and contained very extensive logs of structural and other data, which allowed the CAIB to reconstruct many of the events during the process leading to breakup.

Beginning on May 30, , foam impact tests were performed by Southwest Research Institute. They used a compressed air gun to fire a foam block of similar size and mass to that which struck Columbia , at the same estimated speed.

To represent the leading edge of Columbia ' s left wing, RCC panels from NASA stock, along with the actual leading-edge panels from Enterprise , which were fiberglass, were mounted to a simulating structural metal frame.

At the beginning of testing, the likely impact site was estimated to be between RCC panel 6 and 9, inclusive.

Over many days, dozens of the foam blocks were shot at the wing leading edge model at various angles.

These produced only cracks or surface damage to the RCC panels. During June, further analysis of information from Columbia ' s flight data recorder narrowed the probable impact site to one single panel: RCC wing panel 8.

On July 7, in a final round of testing, a block fired at the side of an RCC panel 8 created a hole 16 by The report confirmed the immediate cause of the accident was a breach in the leading edge of the left wing, caused by insulating foam shed during launch.

The report also delved deeply into the underlying organizational and cultural issues that led to the accident. The report was highly critical of NASA's decision-making and risk-assessment processes.

It concluded the organizational structure and processes were sufficiently flawed that a compromise of safety was expected, no matter who was in the key decision-making positions.

An example was the position of Shuttle Program Manager, where one individual was responsible for achieving safe, timely launches and acceptable costs, which are often conflicting goals.

The CAIB report found that NASA had accepted deviations from design criteria as normal when they happened on several flights and did not lead to mission-compromising consequences.

One of those was the conflict between a design specification stating that the thermal protection system was not designed to withstand significant impacts and the common occurrence of impact damage to it during flight.

The board made recommendations for significant changes in processes and organizational culture. NASA had commissioned this group, "to perform a comprehensive analysis of the accident, focusing on factors and events affecting crew survival, and to develop recommendations for improving crew survival for all future human space flight vehicles.

Although circulatory systems functioned for a brief time, the effects of the depressurization were severe enough that the crew could not have regained consciousness.

This event was lethal to the crew. The key recommendations of the report included that future spacecraft crew survival systems should not rely on manual activation to protect the crew.

Upgrades to the leading edge proposed in the early s were not funded because NASA was working on the later-cancelled VentureStar single-stage-to-orbit shuttle replacement.

One question of special importance was whether NASA could have saved the astronauts had they known of the danger.

Atlantis was well along in processing for a planned March 1 launch on STS , and Columbia carried an unusually large quantity of consumables due to an Extended Duration Orbiter package.

NASA investigators determined that Atlantis processing could have been expedited with no skipped safety checks for a February 10 launch.

Hence, if nothing went wrong, there was a five-day overlap for a possible rescue. As mission control could deorbit an empty shuttle, but could not control the orbiter's reentry and landing, it is likely that it would have sent Columbia into the Pacific Ocean; [71] NASA later developed the Remote Control Orbiter system to permit mission control to land a shuttle.

NASA investigators determined that on-orbit repair by the shuttle astronauts was possible but overall considered "high risk", primarily due to the uncertain resiliency of the repair using available materials and the anticipated high risk of doing additional damage to the Orbiter.

Therefore, an unusual emergency extra-vehicular activity EVA would have been required. While there was no astronaut EVA training for maneuvering to the wing, astronauts are always prepared for a similarly difficult emergency EVA to close the external tank umbilical doors located on the orbiter underside, which is necessary for reentry in the event of failure.

Similar methods could have reached the shuttle left wing for inspection or repair. For the repair, the CAIB determined that the astronauts would have to use tools and small pieces of titanium, or other metal, scavenged from the crew cabin.

These metals would help protect the wing structure and would be held in place during reentry by a water-filled bag that had turned into ice in the cold of space.

The ice and metal would help restore wing leading edge geometry, preventing a turbulent airflow over the wing and therefore keeping heating and burn-through levels low enough for the crew to survive reentry and bail out before landing.

The CAIB could not determine whether a patched-up left wing would have survived even a modified reentry, and concluded that the rescue option would have had a considerably higher chance of bringing Columbia ' s crew back alive.

The concerts were televised to millions throughout Brazil and the world. On February 4, , President George W.

Bush and his wife Laura led a memorial service for the astronauts' families at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center.

A similar memorial was built at the cemetery for the last crew of Challenger. On October 28, , the names of the astronauts were added to the Space Mirror Memorial at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Merritt Island, Florida , alongside the names of several astronauts and cosmonauts who have died in the line of duty.

In addition, the Astros wore the mission patch on their sleeves and replaced all dugout advertising with the mission patch logo for the entire season.

In , Bush conferred posthumous Congressional Space Medals of Honor to all 14 crew members lost in the Challenger and Columbia accidents.

NASA named several places in honor of Columbia and the crew. Seven asteroids discovered in July at the Mount Palomar observatory were officially given the names of the seven astronauts: Rickhusband , Mikeanderson , Davidbrown , Kalpanachawla , Laurelclark , Ilanramon , Williemccool.

A complex of seven hills east of the Spirit landing site was dubbed the Columbia Hills ; each of the seven hills was individually named for a member of the crew, and Husband Hill in particular was ascended and explored by the rover.

In , the IAU approved naming of a cluster of seven small craters in the Apollo basin on the far side of the Moon after the astronauts.

Washington State Route was renamed Lt. Michael P. Anderson Memorial Highway, as it runs through Cheney, Washington , the town where he graduated from high school.

Anderson had attended fifth grade at Blair Elementary, the base's previous elementary school, while his father was stationed there.

McCool Elementary School. It was supposed to have an assembly when he returned from space. The school was later renamed Michael Anderson Elementary.

In October , both houses of Congress passed a resolution authored by U. The facility is located at the former manufacturing site of the space shuttles, including Columbia and Challenger.

The U. He was a graduate of the program. NASA named a supercomputer " Columbia " in the crew's honor in The first part of the system, built in , known as " Kalpana " was dedicated to Chawla, who worked at Ames prior to joining the Space Shuttle program.

Navy compound at a major coalition military base in Afghanistan is named Camp McCool. The Challenger Columbia Stadium in League City, Texas is named in honor of the victims of both the Columbia disaster as well as the Challenger disaster in Columbia Colles, a range of hills on Pluto discovered by the New Horizons spacecraft in July , was named in honor of the victims of the disaster.

A photo tribute commemorating the Columbia and its crew is displayed in the "Wings of Fame" section of the queue for Soarin' Around the World at Disney California Adventure park alongside many other famous air and space craft.

At the Daytona , which happened 2 weeks after the disaster, all racecars bore Columbia decals in honor of those who were lost.

Following the loss of Columbia , the space shuttle program was suspended. The station was supplied using Russian uncrewed Progress ships, and crews were exchanged using Russian-crewed Soyuz spacecraft , and forced to operate on a skeleton crew of two.

Less than a year after the accident, President Bush announced the Vision for Space Exploration , calling for the space shuttle fleet to complete the ISS, with retirement by following the completion of the ISS, to be replaced by a newly developed Crew Exploration Vehicle for travel to the Moon and Mars.

Overall the STS flight was highly successful, but a similar piece of foam from a different portion of the tank was shed, although the debris did not strike the Orbiter.

Due to this, NASA once again grounded the shuttles until the remaining problem was understood and a solution implemented.

Kelly returned Discovery safely to Earth on August 9, Later that same month, the external tank construction site at Michoud was damaged by Hurricane Katrina.

The actual cause of the foam loss on both Columbia and Discovery was not determined until December , when x-ray photographs of another tank showed that thermal expansion and contraction during filling, not human error, caused cracks that led to foam loss.

NASA's Hale formally apologized to the Michoud workers who had been blamed for the loss of Columbia for almost three years. The second "Return to Flight" mission, STS , was launched on July 4, , at EDT , after two previous launch attempts were scrubbed because of lingering thunderstorms and high winds around the launch pad.

The launch took place despite objections from its chief engineer and safety head. This mission increased the ISS crew to three.

While this did not delay the launch for the next mission— STS , originally set to lift off on August 27 [97] —the weather and other technical glitches did, with a lightning strike, Hurricane Ernesto and a faulty fuel tank sensor combining to delay the launch until September 9.

On September 19, landing was delayed an extra day to examine Atlantis after objects were found floating near the shuttle in the same orbit.

When no damage was detected, Atlantis landed successfully on September The Columbia Crew Survival Investigation Report released by NASA on December 30, , made further recommendations to improve a crew's survival chances on future space vehicles, such as the then planned Orion spacecraft.

These included improvements in crew restraints, finding ways to deal more effectively with catastrophic cabin depressurization, more "graceful degradation" of vehicles during a disaster so that crews will have a better chance at survival, and automated parachute systems.

The United States ended its Space Shuttle program in in part due to the fallout from the Columbia disaster. After the shuttle's breakup, there were some initial fears that terrorists might have been involved, but no evidence of that has ever surfaced.

The San Francisco Chronicle reported that an amateur astronomer had taken a five-second exposure that appeared to show "a purplish line near the shuttle", resembling lightning, during reentry.

In response to the disaster, FX canceled its scheduled airing two nights later of the film Armageddon , in which the Space Shuttle Atlantis is depicted as being destroyed by asteroid fragments.

The album Bananas by Deep Purple includes "Contact Lost", an instrumental piece written by guitarist Steve Morse in remembrance of the loss.

Morse is donating his songwriting royalties to the families of the astronauts. The Hungarian composer Peter Eötvös wrote a piece named Seven for solo violin and orchestra in in memory of the crew of Columbia.

Seven was premiered in by violinist Akiko Suwanai , conducted by Pierre Boulez , and it was recorded in with violinist Patricia Kopatchinskaja and the composer conducting.

The Scottish Folk-Rock band Runrig included a song titled "Somewhere" on their album The Story ; the song was dedicated to Laurel Clark who had become a fan of the band during her Navy service in Scotland , and includes a piece of her wake up song, followed by some radio chatter, at the end.

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The strut and aft end of the tank failed, allowing the top of the SRB to rotate into the top of the tank. Challenger was thrown sideways into the Mach 1.

NASA investigators determined they may have survived the spacecraft disintegration, possibly unconscious from hypoxia ; some tried to activate their emergency oxygen.

Valentin Bondarenko. First space-related fatality. He suffered third-degree burns over most of his body and face, and died in a hospital 16 hours later.

Theodore Freeman. Before being selected for a Gemini crew, Freeman was flying a T jet trainer on landing approach to Ellington AFB near Houston, TX, when a goose struck the left side of the cockpit canopy.

Shards of Plexiglas entered the engine intake and caused both engines to flame out. Freeman ejected too close to the ground for his parachute to open properly.

Elliot See Charles Bassett. Louis, Missouri in bad weather, and crashed into the adjacent McDonnell Aircraft factory, where they were going for simulator training for their Gemini 9 flight.

An electrical fire in the cabin spread quickly in the pure oxygen atmosphere and claimed the lives of all three Apollo 1 crew members during a "plugs-out" test in preparation for their planned February 21 launch.

Clifton C. Manned Orbiting Laboratory. Robert Henry Lawrence Jr. Both crewmen ejected; Royer survived with injuries, but Lawrence, the instructor pilot, was found in his ejection seat, parachute not fully deployed.

Sergei Vozovikov. His Cosmonaut training was from 1 October to 6 March Spaceplane crash during test flight.

Michael Alsbury. Michael Alsbury was killed and Peter Siebold was seriously injured when SpaceShipTwo VSS Enterprise disintegrated during a powered atmospheric test flight over California due to premature deployment of the feathering system.

After retrofire, the Vostok service module unexpectedly remained attached to the reentry module by a bundle of wires.

The two halves of the craft were supposed to separate ten seconds after retrofire. But they did not separate until 10 minutes after retrofire, when the wire bundle finally burned through.

The spacecraft went into wild gyrations at the beginning of reentry, before the wires burned through and the reentry module settled into the proper reentry attitude.

After splashdown in the Atlantic Ocean , the hatch malfunctioned and blew, filling the capsule with water and almost drowning Gus Grissom , who managed to escape before it sank.

Grissom then had to deal with a spacesuit that was rapidly filling with water, but managed to get into the helicopter's retrieval collar and was lifted to safety.

An unexploded SOFAR bomb , designed for sound fixing and ranging in case the craft sank, had failed and had to be dealt with when it was recovered from the ocean floor in The mission featured the world's first spacewalk , by Alexei Leonov.

After his twelve minutes outside, Leonov's spacesuit inflated in the vacuum to the point where he could not reenter the airlock.

He opened a valve to allow some of the suit's pressure to bleed off, and was barely able to get back inside the capsule after suffering side effects of the bends.

They spent a night sheltering in the capsule from the cold, and a second night in a temporary hut built by rescuers before skiing with them to a clearing where a helicopter flew them to Perm.

The first on-pad shutdown in the US Manned Program. A maneuvering thruster refused to shut down and put their capsule into an uncontrolled spin.

Mission rules required a landing as soon as possible once the reentry thrusters were used, causing an early end to the flight.

Harrowing reentry and landing when the capsule's service module initially refused to separate, causing the spacecraft to begin reentry faced the wrong way.

The service module broke away before the capsule would have been destroyed, and so it made a rough but survivable landing far off course in the Ural mountains.

Two lightning strikes during launch. The first strike, at 36 seconds after liftoff, knocked the three fuel cells offline and the craft switched to battery power automatically.

The second strike, at 52 seconds after liftoff, knocked the onboard guidance platform offline. Four temperature sensors on the outside of the Lunar Module were burnt out and four measuring devices in the reaction control system failed temporarily.

Fuel cell power was restored about four minutes later. The astronauts spent additional time in Earth orbit to make sure the spacecraft was functional before firing their S-IVB third stage engine and departing for the Moon.

Astronaut Alan Bean was struck above the right eyebrow by a 16mm movie camera when the spacecraft splashed down in the ocean. The camera broke free from its storage place.

Bean suffered a concussion , [43] and a 1. During launch, the Saturn V second stage experienced a premature shutdown on one of its five engines.

The center engine shut down two minutes early. The remaining engines on the second and third stages were burned a total of 34 seconds longer to compensate.

It was later determined that the shutdown was caused by pogo oscillation of the engine. Parking orbit and translunar injection were successfully achieved.

The crew came home safely after a violent rupture of a liquid oxygen tank [48] deprived the Service Module of its ability to produce electrical power, crippling their spacecraft en route to the Moon.

They survived the loss of use of their command ship by relying on the Lunar Module as a "life boat" to provide life support and power for the trip home.

During descent, the three main parachutes opened successfully. However, when the remaining reaction control system fuel was jettisoned, one parachute was damaged by the discarded fuel causing it to collapse.

Spacecraft and crew still splashed down safely, at a slightly higher than normal velocity, on the two remaining main parachutes.

If a second parachute had failed, the spacecraft would probably have been crushed on impact with the ocean, according to a NASA official.

Soyuz 18a. The mission nearly ended in disaster when the rocket suffered a second-stage separation failure during launch.

This also interrupted the craft's attitude, causing the vehicle to accelerate towards the Earth and triggering an emergency reentry sequence.

Due to the downward acceleration, the crew experienced an acceleration of Upon landing, the vehicle rolled down a hill and stopped just short of a high cliff.

The crew survived, but Lazarev, the mission commander, suffered internal injuries due to the severe G-forces and was never able to fly again.

Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. During final descent and parachute deployment, the U. Vance Brand lost consciousness for a short time. The crew members suffered from burning sensations of their eyes, faces, noses, throats and lungs.

Thomas Stafford quickly broke out emergency oxygen masks and put one on Brand and gave one to Deke Slayton.

About an hour after landing the crew developed chemical-induced pneumonia and their lungs had edema. They experienced shortness of breath and were hospitalized in Hawaii.

The crew spent five days in the hospital, followed by a week of observation in semi-isolation. By July 30, their chest X-rays appeared to return to normal except for Slayton; he was diagnosed with a benign lesion, unrelated to the gas exposure, which was later removed.

The capsule broke through the surface of a frozen lake and was dragged underwater by its parachute. The crew was saved after a very difficult rescue operation.

Engine failure forced the mission to be aborted. It was the first-ever failure of a Soyuz engine during orbital operations. The crew, commander Nikolai Rukavishnikov and Bulgarian cosmonaut Georgi Ivanov , suffered a steep ballistic re-entry, but were safely recovered.

During launch, the Solid Rocket Booster ignition shock wave overpressure was four times greater than expected 2.

Some of the aft structures on Space Shuttle Columbia reached their design limits 2. John Young and Robert Crippen in the crew cabin received a 3-G jolt from the shock wave.

An improved water spray shock wave damping system had to be installed on the launch pad prior to launch.

A fuel spillage before the planned liftoff caused the vehicle to be engulfed in flames. The crew was narrowly saved by the activation of their launch escape system, with the rocket exploding two seconds later.

In the last two minutes of the mission, during Space Shuttle Columbia 's final approach to the Edwards AFB runway, hydrazine fuel leaked onto hot surfaces of two of the three onboard auxiliary power units APU in the aft compartment of the shuttle and caught fire.

About 15 minutes after landing, hydrazine fuel trapped in the APU control valves exploded, destroying the valves in both APUs.

The fire also damaged nearby wiring. The fire stopped when the supply of leaked fuel was exhausted. All of this was discovered the next day when technicians removed an access panel and discovered the area blackened and scorched.

It is believed that hydrazine leaked in orbit and froze, stopping the leak. After returning, the leak restarted and ignited when combined with oxygen from the atmosphere.

There were no injuries during the incident. Five minutes, 45 seconds into ascent, one of three main engines aboard Challenger shut down prematurely due to a spurious high temperature reading.

At about the same time, a second main engine almost shut down from a similar problem, but this was observed and inhibited by a fast acting flight controller.

Had the second engine failed within about 20 seconds of the first, a Transoceanic Abort Landing TAL abort might have been necessary.

But even with that option, a bailout a "contingency abort" would never be considered when an "intact abort" option exists, and after five minutes of normal flight it would always exist unless a serious flight control failure or some other major problem beyond engine shutdown occurred.

During descent they suffered a computer software problem combined with a sensor problem. The deorbit engine on the TM-5 spacecraft which was to propel them into atmospheric reentry , did not behave as expected.

During an attempted burn, the computer shut off the engines prematurely, believing the spacecraft was out of alignment. But the engines shut off again.

The flight director decided that they would have to remain in orbit an extra day a full revolution of the Earth , so they could determine what the problem was.

During this time it was realised that during the second attempted engine burn, the computer had tried to execute the program which was used to dock with Mir several months earlier during EP Space Shuttle Atlantis ' Thermal Protection System tiles sustained unusually severe damage during this flight.

Ablative insulating material from the right-hand solid rocket booster nose cap had hit the orbiter about 85 seconds into the flight, as seen in footage of the ascent.

The crew made an inspection of the Shuttle's impacted starboard side using the Shuttle's Canadarm robot arm, but the limited resolution and range of the cameras made it impossible to determine the full extent of the tile damage.

Following reentry, more than tiles were found to be damaged including one that was missing entirely. STS was the most heavily damaged Shuttle to return to Earth safely.

During an extravehicular activity , a small rod palm bar in a glove of EV2 astronaut Jay Apt 's extravehicular mobility unit punctured the suit.

Somehow, the astronaut's hand conformed to the puncture and sealed it, preventing any detectable depressurization.

During post-flight debriefings, Apt said after the second EVA, when he removed the gloves, his right hand index finger had an abrasion behind the knuckle.

A postflight inspection of the right hand glove found the palm bar of the glove penetrating a restraint and glove bladder into the index finger side of the glove.

NASA found air leakage with the bar in place was 3. They said if the bar had come out of the hole, the leak still would not have been great enough to activate the secondary oxygen pack.

The suit would, however, have shown a high oxygen rate indication. While releasing the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite from the payload bay, both the primary and backup explosive release devices detonated.

Only the primary device was supposed to have detonated. Large metal bands holding the satellite in place were ripped away, causing flying debris. The debris punctured the orbiter's payload bay bulkhead leading to the main engine compartment, damaging wiring trays and payload bay thermal insulation blankets.

The crew was uninjured and the damage was not great enough to endanger the shuttle. The satellite was undamaged.

Thagard suffered an eye injury. He was using an exercise device, doing deep knee bends, with elastic straps. One of the straps slipped off of his foot, flew up, and hit him in the eye.

Later, even a small amount of light caused pain in his eye. He said using the eye was, "like looking at the world through gauze. There was a fire on board the Mir space station when a lithium perchlorate canister used to generate oxygen leaked.

The fire was extinguished after about 90 seconds, but smoke did not clear for several minutes. Fuel cell 2 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia unexpectedly failed on Day 4 in orbit, forcing an early end to the flight.

The mission touched down safely, and the crew was reflown with the same mission plan on STS At Mir , during a re-docking test with the Progress M cargo freighter, the Progress freighter collided with the Spektr module and solar arrays of the Mir space station.

This damaged the solar arrays and the collision punctured a hole in the Spektr module and the space station began depressurizing.

The onboard crew of two Russians and one visiting NASA astronaut were able to close off the Spektr module from the rest of Mir after quickly cutting cables and hoses blocking the hatch closure.

Five seconds after liftoff, an electrical short knocked out controllers for two shuttle main engines. The engines automatically switched to their backup controllers.

Had a further short shut down two engines, Columbia would have ditched in the ocean, although the crew could have possibly bailed out.

Concurrently a pin came loose inside one engine and ruptured a cooling line, allowing a hydrogen fuel leak. This caused premature fuel exhaustion, but the vehicle safely achieved a slightly lower orbit.

Had the failure propagated further, a risky transatlantic or RTLS abort would have been required. Curbeam and Thomas D. Jones were connecting cooling lines on the International Space Station while working to install the Destiny Laboratory Module.

The escaping ammonia froze on the spacesuit of astronaut Curbeam as he struggled to close the valve. His helmet and suit were coated in ammonia crystals an inch thick.

Mission Control instructed Curbeam to remain outside for an entire orbit to allow the Sun to evaporate the frozen ammonia from his spacesuit.

When they returned to the airlock, the astronauts pressurized, vented and then repressurized the air lock to purge any remaining toxic ammonia.

After they removed their spacesuits, the crew wore oxygen masks for another 20 minutes to allow life-support systems in the airlock to further filter the air.

No injuries resulted from the incident. The capsule had a malfunction during its return to Earth from the ISS Expedition 6 mission and performed a ballistic reentry.

The crew was subjected to about 8 to 9 Gs during reentry. Astronaut Don Pettit injured his shoulder and was placed on a stretcher in a rescue helicopter and did not take part in post-landing ceremonies.

The rolls began at 50 seconds into the engine burn. The burn was stopped 11 seconds early after burning a total of 76 seconds.

After engine cutoff, the craft continued rolling while coasting to apogee. The roll was finally brought under control after apogee using the craft's reaction jets.

SpaceShipOne landed safely and Mike Melvill was uninjured. Reentry mishap similar to that suffered by Soyuz 5 in The service module failed to completely separate from the reentry vehicle and caused it to face the wrong way during the early portion of aerobraking.

As with Soyuz 5, the service module eventually separated and the reentry vehicle completed a rough but survivable landing.

Following the Russian news agency Interfax 's report, this was widely reported as life-threatening [72] [73] while NASA urged caution pending an investigation of the vehicle.

The South Korean Science Ministry said that the astronaut had a minor injury to her neck muscles and had bruised her spinal column.

ISS Expedition Flight controllers elected to abort the EVA immediately, and Parmitano made his way back to the Quest airlock , followed by fellow astronaut Chris Cassidy.

The airlock began repressurizing after a 1-hour and 32 minute spacewalk, and by this time Parmitano was having difficulty seeing, hearing, and speaking due to the amount of water in his suit.

After repressurization, Expedition 36 commander Pavel Vinogradov and crewmembers Fyodor Yurchikhin and Karen Nyberg quickly removed Parmitano's helmet and soaked up the water with towels.

Despite the incident, Parmitano was reported to be in good spirits and suffered no injury. The designers failed to take into account the physics of water in zero-g, which unintentionally allowed coolant water to mix with the air supply.

Ground controllers detected a dip in cabin pressure, which astronauts traced to a 2-millimeter hole in Soyuz MS , which was quickly patched up by Soyuz commander Sergey Prokopyev with epoxy.

The crew reported feeling weightless; mission control declared a rocket had failed. An emergency was declared and the spacecraft carrying the crew was separated from the rocket.

It returned to Earth in a ballistic descent sharper than normal angle , and the crew experienced 6. Investigation determined the ball joint supporting one of the side boosters had been deformed during assembly; the damaged joint prevented proper separation despite proper activation of the separation motors; the booster re-contacted the core stage, inflicting further damage.

Berlin , Germany. Max Valier , "first casualty of the modern space age", [84] killed by rocket engine explosion.

Mount Redoria near Milan , Italy. Darwin Lyon , exploded during tests, killing a mechanic and injuring three others. Lyon was not present when the explosion occurred.

Explosion in rocket manufacturing room of Reinhold Tiling [87]. The Nedelin catastrophe caused by ignition of second-stage engines on the pad.

On the same day as the Nedelin catastrophe, another catastrophe took place: due to the evaporation of fuel and a short circuit, a fire took the lives of 7 [90] or 8 [91] people.

Since then, 24 October is considered a "Black Day", and Russia has not launched rockets on that day. The third stage of a Delta rocket had just been joined to the Orbiting Solar Observatory satellite in the spin test facility building at Cape Kennedy.

Sidney Dagle, 29; Lot D. Gabel, 51, and John Fassett, 30, were severely burned and later died of their injuries. Eight others were injured, but survived.

The ignition was caused by a spark of static electricity. Braunlage , West Germany. Mail rocket built by Gerhard Zucker exploded and debris hit crowd of spectators.

Soyuz 7K-OK No. Launch escape system fired 27 minutes after an aborted launch causing a fire and subsequent explosion when pad workers had already returned to the launch pad.

Explosion while fueling up a Vostok-2M rocket [97]. The bottom section of the booster broke free, hit the ground and ignited. One person, Alan M.

Quimby, 27, a civilian employee of Wyle Laboratories , was killed and 9 others were injured in the accident.

Komaki, Aichi , Japan. Engineer Arihiro Kanaya, 23, was conducting a high pressure endurance test on a pipe used in the first stage rocket engine of the H-2 H-II launch vehicle when it exploded.

Esrange , Sweden. Nike-Orion []. Xichang , China. Long March rocket veered off course after launch [].

A Long March rocket carrying the Intelsat Satellite veered off course immediately after launch, crashing in the nearby village 22 seconds later, destroying 80 houses.

According to official Chinese reports there were 6 fatalities and 57 injuries resulting from the incident, but other accounts estimated fatalities.

Plesetsk Cosmodrome , Russia. Foton-M No. Fragments of the rocket started a forest fire nearby, and a Block D strap-on booster caused damage to the launchpad.

VLS-1 V03 : Explosion of an uncrewed rocket during launch preparations []. Mojave Spaceport , California. Explosion during a test of rocket systems by Scaled Composites during a nitrous oxide injector test [].

Pad worker William B. The cap blew off with psi pressure, striking him in the chest. Robert E.

Space Crash - Our guests reviews

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Ich entschuldige mich, aber es kommt mir nicht ganz heran.

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