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Liberty Bell (englisch für Freiheitsglocke) ist der Name der Glocke, die geläutet wurde, als die Amerikanische Unabhängigkeitserklärung in Philadelphia am 8. The Liberty Bell ist ein amerikanischer Militärmarsch, der im Jahre von John Philip Sousa komponiert wurde. Geschichte[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]. Reverso Context oferă traducere în context din română în germană pentru "liberty bell", cu exemple: Capsula Liberty Bell 7 se scufunda în apă. Genießen Sie eine Grad-Aussicht auf die Altstadt, den Love Park, das Philadelphia Museum of Art, das Eastern State Penitentiary, die Liberty Bell, den​. Reisebericht von Philadelphia (USA) mit Independence Hall, Liberty Bell, Masonic Temple, City Hall, Chinatown, LOVE Skulptur & Philadelphia.

Bell Liberty

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Although no immediate announcement was made of the Second Continental Congress 's vote for independence —and so the bell could not have rung on July 4, , related to that vote—bells were rung on July 8 to mark the reading of the United States Declaration of Independence.

While there is no contemporary account of the Liberty Bell ringing, most historians believe it was one of the bells rung.

After American independence was secured, the bell fell into relative obscurity until, in the s, the bell was adopted as a symbol by abolitionist societies, who dubbed it the "Liberty Bell".

The bell acquired its distinctive large crack some time in the early 19th century—a widespread story claims it cracked while ringing after the death of Chief Justice John Marshall in The bell became famous after an short story claimed that an aged bellringer rang it on July 4, , upon hearing of the Second Continental Congress' vote for independence.

Although the bell did not ring for independence on that July 4, the tale was widely accepted as fact, even by some historians.

Beginning in , the city of Philadelphia—which owns the bell—allowed it to go to various expositions and patriotic gatherings. The bell attracted huge crowds wherever it went, additional cracking occurred, and pieces were chipped away by souvenir hunters.

The last such journey occurred in , after which the city refused further requests. The bell was used as a symbol of freedom during the Cold War and was a popular site for protests in the s.

It was moved from its longtime home in Independence Hall to a nearby glass pavilion on Independence Mall in , and then to the larger Liberty Bell Center adjacent to the pavilion in The bell has been featured on coins and stamps, and its name and image have been widely used by corporations.

Philadelphia's city bell had been used to alert the public to proclamations or civic danger since the city's founding.

The original bell hung from a tree behind the Pennsylvania State House now known as Independence Hall and was said to have been brought to the city by its founder, William Penn.

In , with a bell tower being built in the Pennsylvania State House, civic authorities sought a bell of better quality that could be heard at a greater distance in the rapidly expanding city.

We hope and rely on thy care and assistance in this affair and that thou wilt procure and forward it by the first good opp o as our workmen inform us it will be much less trouble to hang the Bell before their Scaffolds are struck from the Building where we intend to place it which will not be done 'till the end of next Summer or beginning of the Fall.

Proclaim Liberty thro' all the Land to all the Inhabitants thereof. At the time, "Pensylvania" was an accepted alternative spelling for "Pennsylvania.

It arrived in Philadelphia in August Norris wrote to Charles that the bell was in good order, but they had not yet sounded it, as they were building a clock for the State House's tower.

The episode would be used to good account in later stories of the bell; [8] in , former President Benjamin Harrison , speaking as the bell passed through Indianapolis , stated, "This old bell was made in England, but it had to be re-cast in America before it was attuned to proclaim the right of self-government and the equal rights of men.

Two local founders , John Pass and John Stow, offered to recast the bell. Though they were inexperienced in bell casting, Pass had headed the Mount Holly Iron Foundry in neighboring New Jersey and came from Malta that had a tradition of bell casting.

Stow, on the other hand, was only four years out of his apprenticeship as a brass founder. At Stow's foundry on Second Street, the bell was broken into small pieces, melted down, and cast into a new bell.

The two founders decided that the metal was too brittle, and augmented the bell metal by about ten percent, using copper. The bell was ready in March , and Norris reported that the lettering that included the founders' names and the year was even clearer on the new bell than on the old.

City officials scheduled a public celebration with free food and drink for the testing of the recast bell. When the bell was struck, it did not break, but the sound produced was described by one hearer as like two coal scuttles being banged together.

Mocked by the crowd, Pass and Stow hastily took the bell away and again recast it. When the fruit of the two founders' renewed efforts was brought forth in June , the sound was deemed satisfactory, though Norris indicated that he did not personally like it.

The bell was hung in the steeple of the State House the same month. The reason for the difficulties with the bell is not certain. The Whitechapel Foundry took the position that the bell was either damaged in transit or was broken by an inexperienced bell ringer, who incautiously sent the clapper flying against the rim, rather than the body of the bell.

Dissatisfied with the bell, Norris instructed Charles to order a second one, and see if Lester and Pack would take back the first bell and credit the value of the metal towards the bill.

In , the Assembly decided to keep both bells; the new one was attached to the tower clock [18] while the old bell was, by vote of the Assembly, devoted "to such Uses as this House may hereafter appoint.

The Bell rings, and I must go among the Grave ones, and talk Politiks. Despite the legends that have grown up about the Liberty Bell, it did not ring on July 4, at least not for any reason connected with independence , as no public announcement was made of the Declaration of Independence.

When the Declaration was publicly read on July 8, , there was a ringing of bells, and while there is no contemporary account of this particular bell ringing, most authorities agree that the Liberty Bell was among the bells that rang.

Paige, who wrote a historical study of the bell for the National Park Service , "We do not know whether or not the steeple was still strong enough to permit the State House bell to ring on this day.

If it could possibly be rung, we can assume it was. Whether or not it did, it has come to symbolize all of the bells throughout the United States which proclaimed Independence.

If the bell was rung, it would have been most likely rung by Andrew McNair , who was the doorkeeper both of the Assembly and of the Congress, and was responsible for ringing the bell.

As McNair was absent on two unspecified days between April and November, it might have been rung by William Hurry, who succeeded him as doorkeeper for Congress.

After Washington 's defeat at the Battle of Brandywine on September 11, , the revolutionary capital of Philadelphia was defenseless, and the city prepared for what was seen as an inevitable British attack.

Bells could easily be recast into munitions, and locals feared the Liberty Bell and other bells would meet this fate.

The bell was hastily taken down from the tower, and sent by heavily guarded wagon train to the town of Bethlehem. Local wagoneers transported the bell to the Zion German Reformed Church in Northampton Town, now Allentown , where it waited out the British occupation of Philadelphia under the church floor boards.

With the steeple of the State House in poor condition the steeple was subsequently torn down and later restored , the bell was placed in storage, and it was not until that it was again mounted for ringing.

Placed on an upper floor of the State House, the bell was rung in the early years of independence on the Fourth of July and on Washington's Birthday , as well as on Election Day to remind voters to hand in their ballots.

It also rang to call students at the University of Pennsylvania to their classes at nearby Philosophical Hall. Until , when the state capital was moved to Lancaster , it again rang to summon legislators into session.

The remains of the bell were recast; the new bell is now located at Villanova University. It is uncertain how the bell came to be cracked; the damage occurred sometime between and The bell is mentioned in a number of newspaper articles during that time; no mention of a crack can be found until In fact, in , the bell was depicted in an anti-slavery publication—uncracked.

In February Public Ledger reported that the bell had been rung on February 23, , in celebration of Washington's Birthday as February 22 fell on a Sunday, the celebration occurred the next day , and also reported that the bell had long been cracked, but had been "put in order" by having the sides of the crack filed.

The paper reported that around noon, it was discovered that the ringing had caused the crack to be greatly extended, and that "the old Independence Bell The most common story about the cracking of the bell is that it happened when the bell was rung upon the death of the Chief Justice of the United States , John Marshall.

This story originated in , when the volunteer curator of Independence Hall, Colonel Frank Etting, announced that he had ascertained the truth of the story.

While there is little evidence to support this view, it has been widely accepted and taught. Other claims regarding the crack in the bell include stories that it was damaged while welcoming Lafayette on his return to the United States in , that it cracked announcing the passing of the British Catholic Relief Act , and that some boys had been invited to ring the bell, and inadvertently damaged it.

David Kimball, in his book compiled for the National Park Service, suggests that it most likely cracked sometime between and , either on the Fourth of July or on Washington's Birthday.

In an piece, "The Liberty Bell", Philadelphians were castigated for not doing more for the abolitionist cause. Two years later, in another work of that society, the journal Liberty featured an image of the bell as its frontispiece, with the words "Proclaim Liberty".

The same year, William Lloyd Garrison 's anti-slavery publication The Liberator reprinted a Boston abolitionist pamphlet containing a poem entitled "The Liberty Bell" that noted that, at that time, despite its inscription, the bell did not proclaim liberty to all the inhabitants of the land.

A great part of the modern image of the bell as a relic of the proclamation of American independence was forged by writer George Lippard.

At the most dramatic moment, a young boy appears with instructions for the old man: to ring the bell. It was subsequently published in Lippard's collected stories.

Lossing 's The Pictorial Field Guide to the Revolution published in as historical fact, [38] and the tale was widely repeated for generations after in school primers.

In , with the rise of interest in the bell, the city decided to move it to the Assembly Room also known as the Declaration Chamber on the first floor, where the Declaration and United States Constitution had been debated and signed.

The Liberty Bell was displayed on that pedestal for the next quarter-century, surmounted by an eagle originally sculpted, later stuffed.

Due to time constraints, only a small fraction of those wishing to pass by the coffin were able to; the lines to see the coffin were never less than 3 miles 4.

In , city officials discussed what role the bell should play in the nation's Centennial festivities. Some wanted to repair it so it could sound at the Centennial Exposition being held in Philadelphia, but the idea was not adopted; the bell's custodians concluded that it was unlikely that the metal could be made into a bell that would have a pleasant sound, and that the crack had become part of the bell's character.

The metal used for what was dubbed "the Centennial Bell" included four melted-down cannons: one used by each side in the American Revolutionary War, and one used by each side in the Civil War.

That bell was sounded at the Exposition grounds on July 4, , was later recast to improve the sound, and today is the bell attached to the clock in the steeple of Independence Hall.

Between and , the Liberty Bell made seven trips to various expositions and celebrations. Each time, the bell traveled by rail, making a large number of stops along the way so that local people could view it.

Large crowds mobbed the bell at each stop. Davis delivered a speech paying homage to it, and urging national unity. The city placed the bell in a glass-fronted oak case.

A guard was posted to discourage souvenir hunters who might otherwise chip at it. By , the bell had made six trips, and not only had the cracking become worse, but souvenir hunters had deprived it of over one percent of its weight.

The city finally decided to let it go as the bell had never been west of St. Louis, and it was a chance to bring it to millions who might never see it otherwise.

The bell was taken on a different route on its way home; again, five million saw it on the return journey. Chicago tried again, with a petition signed by 3.

Both efforts failed. In , one of Independence Hall's exterior doors was replaced by glass, allowing some view of the bell even when the building was closed.

Once the war started, the bell was again a symbol, used to sell war bonds. The idea provoked a storm of protest from around the nation, and was abandoned.

Officials then considered building an underground steel vault above which it would be displayed, and into which it could be lowered if necessary.

The project was dropped when studies found that the digging might undermine the foundations of Independence Hall. After World War II , and following considerable controversy, the City of Philadelphia agreed that it would transfer custody of the bell and Independence Hall, while retaining ownership, to the federal government.

The city would also transfer various colonial-era buildings it owned. In the postwar period, the bell became a symbol of freedom used in the Cold War.

The bell was chosen for the symbol of a savings bond campaign in The purpose of this campaign, as Vice President Alben Barkley put it, was to make the country "so strong that no one can impose ruthless, godless ideologies on us".

Almost from the start of its stewardship, the Park Service sought to move the bell from Independence Hall to a structure where it would be easier to care for the bell and accommodate visitors.

The first such proposal was withdrawn in , after considerable public protest. The Independence National Historical Park Advisory Committee proposed in that the bell be moved out of Independence Hall, as the building could not accommodate the millions expected to visit Philadelphia for the Bicentennial.

Instead, in , the Park Service proposed to build a smaller glass pavilion for the bell at the north end of Independence Mall, between Arch and Race Streets.

Philadelphia Mayor Frank Rizzo agreed with the pavilion idea, but proposed that the pavilion be built across Chestnut Street from Independence Hall, which the state feared would destroy the view of the historic building from the mall area.

During the Bicentennial, members of the Procrastinators' Club of America jokingly picketed the Whitechapel Bell Foundry with signs "We got a lemon" and "What about the warranty?

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Kamel France. Voir tous les commentaires. The first such proposal was withdrawn inafter considerable public protest. Two years later, in another work of that society, the journal Liberty featured Spin App Kostenlos image of the bell as its frontispiece, with the words "Proclaim Liberty". Apple iPad Air Meilleur prix : Autre test. Untilwhen the state capital was moved to Lancasterit again rang to Online Casino Download Free legislators into session. The bell was used as a Online Casino Mit 400 Bonus of freedom during Casino Eintrittsalter Cold War and was a popular site for protests in the s.

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