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Powered by Blogger. The Mau - Mau Uprising The movement was precipitated by the returning African soldiers after the Second World War who were politically aware.

It was an attempt by the Africans to change the system of economic and social injustice which had become a marked feature in Kenya.

They were all directed towards achieving their independence. The Mau-Mau uprising presents an example of African efforts to fight for their rights after realizing that were oppressed in their own country.

It is also an indication that Africans were politically aware and determined to shape their destiny. At the end of the topic students should be able to:.

Guiding questions. This was a Kenyan underground political movement that aimed at saving Kenya from British colonial rule.

It was a rebellion organized by the people of Kenya against colonial administration from under leaders such as Jomo Kenyatta, Dedan Kimathi, Waruhiu Itote popularly known as General China.

The actions attributed to the Mau Mau caused the colonial government to proclaim a state of emergency from October until and also resulted in a massive relocation of Africans, particularly Kikuyu.

Kenyatta and other Africans were charged with directing the Mau…. On October 21, , Kenyatta was arrested on charges of having directed the Mau Mau movement.

During the Mau Mau rebellion of the s, however, the British colonial government moved the Kikuyu into villages for reasons of security.

The economic advantages of village settlement and land consolidation led many Kikuyu to continue this arrangement after the emergency was ended.

The local community unit…. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Day , every day in your inbox! Email address. In order to facilitate this, a railway line from Mombasa to Kisumu was built using Indian workers, and British forces were sent to suppress any resistance from the ethnic groups living in the central highlands — predominantly the Maasai, the Kikuyu and the Kamba.

The response from the native African populace was initially mixed between hostility and welcome. However, British displays of force intended to intimidate locals into submission, such as shooting Africans at random, quickly led to the withdrawal of any hospitality from those living in the interior.

This resistance was met with brutality from the colonialists, who carried out executions and punitive expeditions to hunt down Kikuyu and Kamba people.

These actions were also undertaken to elevate collaborators — Africans willing to cooperate with the British — to positions of power.

An epidemic of rinderpest, a disease that severely affects livestock, heavily contributed to the devastation of the local population.

The arrival of European settlers in added to the troubles of the indigenous people. Whilst the numbers of white immigrants were relatively few, they claimed a disproportionately large amount of land, the majority of which was seized from Africans.

A policy of reallocation was undertaken, expropriating fertile land from locals in order to give it to white farmers, who mostly moved from Britain or South Africa.

This process marked the start of a pattern that would define relations between Europeans and indigenous Kenyans for the first half of the 20th century.

The Crown Lands Ordinance Act of removed the few remaining land rights of the native people, completing a process that essentially transformed them into an agricultural proletariat, dispossessed of their own land.

The influx of settlers increased sharply after the end of the First World War, as the British government undertook a scheme to settle many ex-soldiers in the region.

Continuing land seizures to provide for these settlers drove Africans to form organisations that campaigned for greater land rights for the indigenous inhabitants.

After the end of the Second World War the discontentment amongst African Kenyans was intensified by the lack of progress.

Hundreds of thousands of Kenyans lived in poverty in the slums around Nairobi, with little chance of employment or basic social justice. In comparison, most of the white Europeans and many of the Indians who had settled in Nairobi enjoyed a conspicuous level of wealth, and frequently treated indigenous Africans with hostility and contempt.

By the early fifties the younger, more radical elements of the nationalist movement in Kenya had begun to split away from those campaigning for constitutional reform.

These Africans were generally Kikuyu who had been reduced to squatters on their own land by the laws introduced by the British, and were increasingly disillusioned with the conservative change espoused by organisations like the KAU.

Instead, they were prepared to resort to force to achieve their aims and in the years preceding the uprising they carried out a number of small-scale attacks and sabotage on European property.

The movement that emerged became known as the Mau Mau — the origin of this term is unknown, as it is an ambiguous name to which many have attached different meanings.

Despite awareness of the growth of the movement, the government and settler communities made no concessions aside from a few token measures, and instead continued existing policies of repression and even proposed new legislation to reduce the rights of the indigenous people even further.

This inflexibility forced the Mau Mau into a period of armed resistance. The lack of recognition of the threat posed by the squatter movement demonstrated how the Europeans did not consider Kenyan nationalists to be capable of organising significant opposition to the colonial regime.

Those initially targeted by the Mau Mau were Kikuyu who collaborated with the Europeans. In a wave of violence was directed at police witnesses who provided testimony against Africans, particularly in cases related to the Mau Mau.

Prominent collaborators were assassinated and a small number of white settlers were also attacked. Police responded by initiating a mass campaign of arrests, arresting Kikuyu suspected of Mau Mau involvement and taking others into preventative detention, in an attempt to neutralise the support base of the Mau Mau.

However, this indiscriminate repression had the opposite effect to what was intended and drove many more indigenous Kenyans to support the movement.

By mid around ninety percent of Kikuyu adults had taken the Mau Mau oath. In October , Senior Chief Waruhiu, a prominent collaborator and the harshest critic of the Mau Mau among the Kikuyu chiefs, was assassinated near Nairobi.

His death prompted celebration amongst Mau Mau supporters and consternation in government. The administration finally realised that the Mau Mau posed a serious threat to colonial rule in Kenya and the decision was taken to actively challenge and engage the rebels.

The Declaration of Emergency was accompanied by Operation Jock Scott, a coordinated police operation that arrested Kikuyu who were considered by the government to be the leaders of the Mau Mau movement.

Mau Mau supporters responded by assassinating another senior Kikuyu chief and several white settlers. Thousands of Mau Mau left their homes and set up camp in the forests of the Aberdares and Mt.

Kenya, creating a base of resistance to the government. Hostilities were relatively subdued for the remainder of , but the following year began with a series of violent killings of European farmers and loyalist Africans.

This sufficiently shocked the white population into demanding that the government take more action to combat the Mau Mau, and so the Kenyan security forces were placed under the command of the British Army and began to surround the Mau Mau strongholds in the forests.

The response from the native African populace was initially mixed between hostility Jauch Fragen welcome. It is often argued that Mau Mau was suppressed as a subject for public discussion in Kenya during the periods under Kenyatta and Daniel arap Moi because of the key positions and influential presence of some loyalists in government, business and other elite sectors of Kenyan society post London: James Currey Ltd. British troops kill 24 Mau Mau suspects and capture Online Roulette Gewinn System additional 36 during deployments in the Kenyan highlands. Actual deaths of white Merkur Spielothek Skrill 7 to the Mau-Mau insurrectionists have been listed as low as 32 to 57, to as high as less than At first armed Harvard training aircraft Ue Europe Table used, for direct ground support and also some camp interdiction. Although the murders of Kenyan civilians of European ancestry were brutal and bloody, the actual numbers of those killed at the hands of the Mau-Mau were greatly exaggerated by the media. They included: "One District Officer, murder by beating up and roasting alive of one African. Detainees were screened and re-screened for confessions and intelligence, then re-classified accordingly.

Boulder: Westview Press. The story of this 'psychic epidemic' and others like it were recounted over the years as evidence depicting the predisposition of Africans to episodic mass hysteria.

For his " magnum opus ", see Carothers Retrieved 12 May There was lots of suffering on the other side too. This was a dirty war.

It became a civil war—though that idea remains extremely unpopular in Kenya today. The quote is of Professor David Anderson.

June London Review of Books. Retrieved 3 May The New York Review of Books. While Elstein regards the "requirement" for the "great majority of Kikuyu" to live inside "fortified villages" as "serv[ing] the purpose of protection", Professor David Anderson amongst others regards the "compulsory resettlement" of "1,, Kikuyu" inside what, for the "most" part, were "little more than concentration camps" as "punitive.

Retrieved 8 August Retrieved 29 May See also: Walton , pp. See also the relevant footnote, n. Sunday Mail. Retrieved 17 November — via National Library of Australia.

The Sunday Herald. Friedman Ret. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 9 November — via National Library of Australia. Nearly three-quarters of the city's African male population of sixty thousand were Kikuyu, and most of these men, along with some twenty thousand Kikuyu women and children accompanying them, were allegedly 'active or passive supporters of Mau Mau'.

Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. It is not known how many humans or animals were killed. Mau Mau! Largely framed prior to the declaration of the State of Emergency in , but not implemented until two years later, this development is central to the story of Kenya's decolonization".

For Anderson, see his Histories of the Hanged , p. The Guardian. Retrieved 14 April They therefore confessed to British officers, and sought an early release from detention.

Other detainees refused to accept the British demand that they sully other people's reputations by naming those whom they knew to be involved in Mau Mau.

This 'hard core' kept their mouths closed, and languished for years in detention. The battle behind the wire was not fought over detainees' loyalty to a Mau Mau movement.

Detainees' intellectual and moral concerns were always close to home. British officials thought that those who confessed had broken their allegiance to Mau Mau.

But what moved detainees to confess was not their broken loyalty to Mau Mau, but their devotion to their families. British officials played on this devotion to hasten a confession.

The battle behind the wire was not fought between patriotic hard-core Mau Mau and weak-kneed, wavering, broken men who confessed.

Both hard core and soft core had their families in mind. The Times. It is debatable whether Peter Kenyatta was sympathetic to Mau Mau in the first place and therefore whether he truly switched sides.

Baring informed Lennox-Boyd that eight European officers were facing accusations of a series of murders, beatings and shootings.

They included: "One District Officer, murder by beating up and roasting alive of one African. See also n.

Anderson , p. The quote is of the colony's director of medical services. Schemes of medical help, however desirable and however high their medical priority, could not in [these] circumstances be approved".

The quote is of Baring. The Journal of African History. Journal of African Economies. Solis 15 February Cambridge University Press. Britain's gulag: the brutal end of empire in Kenya.

British colonial rule, violence and the historians of Mau Mau". The Round Table. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana: pp.

Archived from the original on 21 October Retrieved 28 July Retrieved 6 December Seth Amsterdam: Fredonia Books.

This episode is not mentioned in histories of the Mau Mau revolt, suggesting that such incidents were rare.

The post-colonial state must therefore be seen as a representation of the interests protected and promoted during the latter years of colonial rule.

Under Jomo Kenyatta, the post-colonial state represented a 'pact-of-domination' between transnational capital, the elite and the executive.

It was not that Mau Mau won its war against the British; guerrilla movements rarely win in military terms; and militarily Mau Mau was defeated. But in order to crown peace with sustainable civil governance—and thus reopen a prospect of controlled decolonization—the British had to abandon 'multiracialism' and adopt African rule as their vision of Kenya's future.

The blood of Mau Mau, no matter how peculiarly ethnic in source and aim, was the seed of Kenya's all-African sovereignty.

The Economic Times. The Irish Times. Retrieved 30 May The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 11 February The Independent.

Retrieved 12 April Harvard Gazette. Retrieved 26 May Retrieved 21 July Retrieved 18 March Sir Evelyn Baring, the Governor of Kenya, in a telegram to the Secretary of State for the Colonies, reported allegations of extreme brutality made against eight European district officers.

They included 'assault by beating up and burning of two Africans during screening [interrogation]' and one officer accused of 'murder by beating up and roasting alive of one African'.

No action was taken against the accused. Retrieved 10 February Retrieved 6 April A letter was sent to William Hague on March 31 stating: 'The Republic of Kenya fully supports the claimants' case and has publicly denied any notion that responsibility for any acts and atrocities committed by the British colonial administration during the Kenya 'Emergency' was inherited by the Republic of Kenya.

Squaring up to the seamier side of empire is long overdue". Retrieved 27 July Mark Thompson 7 April These new documents were withheld because they were considered to be particularly sensitive, so we can but imagine what will be in these documents.

Senior members of the Commonwealth Office in London did know what was happening; senior legal officials in London did , to some extent, sanction the use of coercive force; and also, at Cabinet level, the Secretary of State for the Colonies certainly knew of the excesses that were taking place.

The quote is of Anderson. Financial Times. Retrieved 9 April In a statement to the court dated March 8, released to The Times yesterday, Martin Tucker, head of corporate records at the Foreign Office, reported that the 13 missing boxes could not be found.

He found evidence that the files had once been stored in the basement of the Old Admiralty Building in Whitehall, but traces of them had vanished after Retrieved 7 May Retrieved 6 May Retrieved 22 March Under Kenyatta many became influential members of the new government.

This system of loyalist patronage percolated all the way down to the local level of government, with former Home Guards dominating bureaucracies that had once been the preserve of the young British colonial officers in the African districts.

Of the numerous vacancies created by decolonization—powerful posts like provincial commissioner and district commissioner—the vast majority were filled by one time loyalists.

Archived from the original pdf on 9 October Constitution of Kenya, National Council for Law Reporting. Article 9, p. The national days. The Standard.

Nairobi: Standard Group. Archived from the original on 21 January Retrieved 7 June Changing Kenyatta Day to Mashujaa Day is not just an innocuous and harmless exercise in constitutional semantics.

He acknowledged the part the freedom fighters had played in the struggle, but he never once made any public statement that conceded to them any rights or any genuine compensation.

Mau Mau was a thing best forgotten. In Kenyatta's Kenya there would be a deafening silence about Mau Mau". Adekson, J. Comparative Strategy.

Alam, S. Shamsul Rethinking the Mau Mau in Colonial Kenya. Cambridge: University Press, African Affairs. CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list link ——— History Today.

CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list link Andrew, Christopher London: Allen Lane. Oxford: James Currey. Canadian Journal of African Studies.

CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list link Blacker, John CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list link ———; Cheeseman, Nicholas Review of African Political Economy.

CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list link Brantley, Cynthia The Giriama and Colonial Resistance in Kenya, — Geneva: World Health Organization.

London: Government Printer. RUSI Journal. Archived from the original PDF on 20 October Agricultural History. Nairobi: Government of Kenya.

Curtis, Mark London: Vintage. Mau Mau: An African Crucible. US edition ——— London: Jonathan Cape. CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list link UK edition ——— The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History.

CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list link Ellis, John []. The Social History of the Machine Gun. Anatomy of Rebellion. The British Way in Counter-Insurgency, — Oxford: Oxford University Press.

The Mau Mau War in Perspective. London: I. CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list link Gerlach, Christian Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

London: Hurst and Blackett. The Logic of Violence in Civil War. Dedan Kimathi: A Biography. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers.

Squatters and the Roots of Mau Mau, — CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list link Lapping, Brian End of Empire revised ed. London: Paladin.

Kenya 4th ed. London: Frank Cass. Journal of African Cultural Studies. CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list link Mahone, Sloan Colonial Psychiatry and "the African Mind" revised ed.

Kenya Diary, — London: Oliver and Boyd. Abingdon: Routledge. Newsinger, John Nissimi, Hilda Journal of Military and Strategic Studies.

Archived from the original on 22 March In Atieno-Odhiambo; Lonsdale eds. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list link Ormsby-Gore, William ; et al.

Report of the East Africa Commission. Page, Malcolm []. King's African Rifles: A History. Barnsley: Pen and Sword Books. In Kevin Shillington, ed.

Louise Leiden: Brill. Part I". Sandgren, David Swainson, Nicola The Development of Corporate Capitalism in Kenya, — Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Walton, Calder London: HarperPress. Manhunt in Kenya. New York: Doubleday. Bennett, Huw Berman, Bruce; Lonsdale, John Branch, Daniel Africa Today.

Clough, Marshall S. Derrick, Jonathan Heinlein, Frank A British Prison camp in Kenya, Image source. The uprising escalated further on March 26, when Mau Mau fighters carried out two major attacks.

The first was an assault on the Naivasha police station, which resulted in a humiliating defeat for the police and the release of prisoners, many of them Mau Mau, from an adjacent detention camp.

The incident was used by the government to further characterise the Mau Mau as brutal savages, and no official mention was made of a similar number of Mau Mau prisoners who were machine gunned to death by government troops in the Aberdare forest.

The gradual organisation of the rebel forces in the forests created military units, although they were limited by a lack of weapons, supplies and training.

The British troops sent to Kenya had little experience of forest fighting, and after a short period of ineffectual engagement they were replaced with units from the Kenyan Army, whilst the British forces instead patrolled the periphery of the forests.

British Army planes were also used to drop bombs on Mau Mau camps and strafe the forest with machine guns. Given the thick cover provided by the foliage, this had only a limited military impact, but the lengthy bombing campaign did serve to demoralise the Mau Mau fighters.

A series of large scale engagements between the two side occurred during , with the underequipped Mau Mau forces suffering heavy losses.

By the end of the year, over 3, Mau Mau had been confirmed as killed and 1, captured including Itote , and almost , alleged Mau Mau supporters had been arrested.

The British decided to undertake an operation to permanently crush the rebel presence in the city, and so in the aptly-named Operation Anvil began.

Police moved through Nairobi in a brutal sweep, detaining anyone they considered suspicious. Tens of thousands of male Kikuyu were arrested and taken to concentration camps without explaining to them why they had been arrested or what crime they were accused of committing.

British soldiers hold villagers at gunpoint whilst their homes are searched for evidence of cooperation with the Mau Mau. By the end of , one million Kikuyu had been driven from their family homes and rehoused in these villages, which were little more than fenced camps and were prone to famine and disease.

In early , British forces began a series of sweeps through the forests in an attempt to drive out the remaining Mau Mau, who by now were suffering from a lack of food and ammunition.

This strategy had a limited effect on the Mau Mau fighters and only a handful were killed, but their position was tenuous enough that the constant disruption further weakened their forces.

The government turned out the entire African population of some districts — in one case as many as 70, people — to work their way through the forest and kill any Mau Mau they found.

The following year Kimathi, the most important of the remaining Mau Mau commanders, was captured and put on trial. The few fighters that remained were no longer capable of resisting the colonial regime in any meaningful way and instead were occupied with simple survival.

This effectively marked the end of the Mau Mau uprising. British troops soon left Kenya, and although the State of Emergency remained in place until , there was little cause for it.

According to official government figures, the number of Mau Mau killed was 11,, but there is little doubt that the true number was significantly higher.

In comparison, the number of white civilians killed by Mau Mau attacks — the basis of British propaganda denouncing the uprising — was just Dedan Kimathi, one of the key generals of the Mau Mau forest fighters, lies on a stretcher after his capture in October Despite the defeat of the Mau Mau, the uprising had put Kenya on an inevitable path to independence from colonial rule.

There were several reasons for this. The first was that it was made clear to the Kenyan population that the Europeans were far from invincible, and that their rule was more tenuous than previously realised.

Consequently, the effective resistance to colonial rule shown by the Mau Mau accelerated the pace of nationalism in Kenya and throughout East Africa.

Also important was the financial impact of the Mau Mau uprising. The British were forced to spend a tremendous amount of money to combat the rebels, and with the lacklustre British economy still suffering from the effects of the Second World War, this expenditure doubtless sapped the British will to continue maintaining their colonial ambitions in the face of such determined opposition.

In addition, the organised approach taken by the Mau Mau and the difficulties they posed for British troops challenged European assertions that Kenyan nationalists were incapable of effectively challenging colonial rule.

Mau Mau: An African Crucible. New York: Ballantine Books, p. The Colonial Transformation of Kenya. Princeton: Princeton University Press, p.

The Mau Mau War in Perspective. During the Mau Mau rebellion of the s, however, the British colonial government moved the Kikuyu into villages for reasons of security.

The economic advantages of village settlement and land consolidation led many Kikuyu to continue this arrangement after the emergency was ended.

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